Guide to the Exhibition of English Medals - Publications on British tokens and medals - Coins and United Kingdom

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Guide to the Exhibition of English Medals

Herbert A. Grueber - 1891

The medals described in this Guide have been selected for their historical interest from the larger series in the Medal Room, and are exhibited in the Cases marked E, F, G, H. The specimens in gold are represented by electrotypes, and those in lead by plaster casts, coloured so as to resemble the originals. Each medal is separately labelled and numbered, the numbers referring to the descriptions in the Guide.

The Introduction gives as much information as could be admitted in the limits, and each medal is described and explained on the same principle. The metal is also stated, and the sizes in inches and tenths, with other particulars necessary for identification.

The first illustrated edition of this work being exhausted, a second is now issued, with a new set of eight plates, executed by the Autotype Process from casts in plaster.

Introduction

Medals serve for two purposes, for the illustration of history and as records of the contemporary state of art. Some series, like that of Italy, have more interest for their artistic merit than their historical import. This may also be said in a great degree of the French medals; but in the English and Dutch series the interest lies rather in the historical value than in the artistic qualities, the medallic art of neither country attaining at any time any high degree of excellence. The medals which are described in this Guide, although to some extent examples of contemporary art, must therefore be considered interesting chiefly as records and illustrations of the history of England for a period of over three hundred years. For this reason a classification of the medals by artists has not been attempted, and a simple chronological order has been preferred. This, however, has been relaxed in a few instances, as in that of the personal medals, which for the most part are placed at the end of the reign in which the persons portrayed flourished; and in a few cases where it has been considered advisable to class together the medals of a particular artist, in order that the merit of his work could be better studied and compared. This has been done in the case of the medals by Stephen of Holland, Simon Passe, and some of those by Thomas and Abraham Simon. The military and naval decorations form a separate series, and are therefore described at the end of the Guide; by this means making the arrangement more useful to those who take special interest in this particular branch. A small selection could, however, only be made from the series in the Museum collection, on account of the limited space for exhibition. In many cases where English medals fail to illustrate important events, selections have been made from the Dutch and other series in order to render the historical record as complete as possible.

With very few exceptions, there are no medals of interest in the English series dating before the reign of Henry VIII. During the fifteenth century a few counters were struck, which directly or indirectly refer to events in English history; but these are for the most part of French work, and the medal which is placed first in this Guide, although bearing the portrait of an Englishman, John Kendal, is undoubtedly of Italian work, and was probably executed at Venice. The Dassier series of the early sovereigns, being a production of the last century, cannot be said to have a place in the early medallic records of this country, and is not included in this exhibition. The series of English medals may therefore be said to commence with the reign of Henry VIII., of which period, besides a number of interesting jetons and medalets, there are some well-executed medals of the King himself, such as No. 3, his portrait evidently after a painting by Holbein, another recording his supremacy over the Church (Nos. 4–5), and several remarkable badges. There are also other medals, chiefly personal, which bear the portraits of Sir Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell Earl of Essex, Anne Boleyn, and Michael Mercator, himself a medallist as well as a diplomatist. The short reign of Edward VI. gives but few examples, of which two are exhibited, one bearing only a portrait of the king, which appears to be a cast in lead from a silver plate; and the other, his coronation medal, the type of which was taken from the "Head of the Church" medal of Henry VIII. The only other interesting works of this reign are the Christ's Hospital badges and medalets, the School having been founded by Edward in 1553. Of Mary there is also little worthy of note beyond some excellent portraits of herself and Philip, and a medal which refers to the condition of England during her reign. These were executed by Trezzo at Madrid, and are the first signed medals of the English series. The illness of Elizabeth in 1572, her struggle with the Papal party, as well as her acceptance of the protection of the Netherlands, and the defeat and destruction of the Spanish Armada, afforded subjects for commemoration. The medals relating to the destruction of the Armada are certainly among the finest pieces ever produced in England, and are good examples of the art of the time. The period of Elizabeth ends with a series of medallic portraits by Stephen of Holland, most of which bear the date 1562, and all apparently executed about that year.

The undisputed accession of the House of Stuart to the English throne and the peaceable reign of its first king limit the subjects for medallic illustration. The medals of the reign of James are purely personal, with few exceptions, such as the Gunpowder Plot (No. 45), and the alliance between England, France, and the United Provinces, for the protection of the latter against the power of Spain (Nos. 46–47). The rest present us with several portraits of the King and of various members of the royal family, and of leading personages, of whom are the Marquis (afterwards Duke) of Buckingham, Richard Sackville Earl of Dorset, Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of the public library at Oxford, and others. There is also a series of royal badges, a species of memorial which becomes much more general in the next reign. These are followed by a selection of engraved portraits of royal personages and others by Simon Passe, who excelled in this style of work.

There are no medals which indicate the early contest between Charles I. and the Parliament, those which are issued before 1640 referring for the most part to the royal family and to eminent persons, with the exception of the Scottish coronation medals of 1633 and those commemorating the settlement of the Dutch Fishery question in 1636. After the Declaration of Parliament in 1642, when the country was divided into two parties, a new era in its medallic history begins, and medals are struck in extraordinary numbers. This continues during the period of the Civil War, and, besides medals which record the successes of both parties, there is a large number of Royalist and Parliamentarian badges, with portraits of the generals and statesmen on both sides. Fortunately, England at this time produced several artists, whose works are fitted to take the first rank in the national series. These artists were Thomas and Abraham Simon, who worked for the Parliament, and Thomas Rawlins, who was in the service of the King. The series of this reign ends with several examples of the badges worn by those who sympathised with the royal cause and with a few medals recording the King's death. With the period of the Commonwealth the issue of royalist badges ceases, and for the next ten years the medals are of the parliamentarian class. These consist of portrait medals of the Protector, of his family, and of the leading statesmen and generals, and also of military and naval rewards, for the most part executed by the two Simons. The Dunbar medal (Nos. 149–150), which was issued for distribution among those engaged in that battle, is the first authorized military decoration known. It was struck by order of the Parliament immediately after the engagement. Naval medals were also issued on several occasions, the most important being those for Blake's victories over the Dutch in 1653 (Nos. 155–158). The Commonwealth series closes with several medals, English and Dutch, commemorating the death of the Protector, and also with a few personal medals, chiefly by the Simons.

The Restoration of Charles II. was an occasion not to be passed by unnoticed by medallists, and of no event are there more medals, except perhaps of the accession of William III. and Mary. Some anticipate the restoration of the King, and others trace step by step his return from Holland, his landing at Dover, the joy expressed by the people at his return, and his coronation at Westminster. The unpopular cession of Dunkirk is only recorded on medals issued in France by Louis XIV. or on Dutch satirical medalets; but the well-contested engagements of the subsequent struggle between England and Holland for the dominion of the sea, and the close of the war by the Peace of Breda, are numerously illustrated. Those which refer to the Peace of Breda were for the most part executed in Holland, and are remarkable examples of the Dutch medallic style of that time. Of the next war with Holland from 1672–1674, there are no English medals, and those relating to it which are exhibited are French and Dutch. The alarm created by the growing strength of the Catholic party and the discovery of the pretended Popish Plot, with the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey and also the Rye House Plot, form the subjects of the next group of medals (Nos. 233–238, 240). Of those of the 'Popish Plot' there is a remarkable medal, which appears to be Dutch, and which gives in detail the supposed circumstances connected with the murder of Godfrey. Many of the portraits of the illustrious men who flourished during this reign are the work of the two Simons, and were mostly executed soon after the Restoration. The important events of the short reign of James II. give much scope to engravers. Medals are shown recording the rebellion of Monmouth and Argyll and its suppression, the attempt of James to re-establish the Roman Catholic religion by the repeal of the Test Act, the imprisonment of the Seven Bishops, and lastly the invitation to William of Orange, with the abdication and flight of James, his queen and son. On these latter medals frequent allusions are made to the supposed illegitimacy of the young Prince. The series of plots and rebellions which followed the flight of James are for the most part recorded by medals struck by the Stuarts abroad (Nos. 292–319): these were issued for distribution among those who sympathised with the exiled house. The medals which bear the portraits of James II. and his son are supposed to have been presented to those who visited them in their exile. No. 311, on which the rule of the House of Hanover is satirized, is one of the medals struck for the purpose of rousing the adherents of the House of Stuart into action; whilst No. 315 refers to the rebellion of 1745, and the next medal to the secret visit of the Younger Pretender to London in 1752, when he was again planning an invasion. The series ends with a medal setting forth the claims of Henry Duke of York as Henry IX. to the throne of his grandfather.

With the Stuart family are specially connected the medalets which are called touch-pieces (Nos. 320–324). The custom of touching by the sovereigns of this country for the cure of scrofula or 'the King's evil' appears to have existed since the reign of Edward the Confessor. At first the practice was rare, but in course of time it increased to such an extent that it is said Elizabeth's 'healings,' which were at first monthly, became of daily occurrence, and many thousands were touched. The power was not claimed by Cromwell; but at the Restoration it was revived, and Charles touched during his reign over 90,000 applicants. It was also much practised by James II., but repudiated by William III. It was again revived by Anne, who was the latest sovereign to perform the ceremony, and among the last of those whom she touched was the afterwards celebrated Dr. Johnson. The Elder Pretender claimed the power, and so did his sons Charles and Henry, the former having exercised it in the name of his father at Edinburgh during the rebellion of 1745. It was during the reign of Henry VII. that the presentation to each applicant of a small piece of gold attached to a band of white ribbon was first generally introduced. The angel was the piece given, partly because it was the smallest gold coin struck and partly on account of a certain fitness of type and inscription, having on one side the archangel Michael overcoming the dragon, and on the other side a ship in the sea and the inscription 'Per crucem tuam salva nos Christe Redemptor.' The coin remained of the same type during the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I.; but the inscription in each case was changed. At the Restoration, when the angel was no longer issued as a current coin, Charles II. ordered medalets of similar type to be struck, bearing the inscription 'Soli Deo gloria.' On account of the attendance at the 'healings' having so largely increased, these medalets are much less in weight and size than the angel. James II. was the first king to strike the medalets in silver as well as in gold; which were scarcely half the size of Charles II.'s. The Elder Pretender as James III. also struck them in gold and silver. There are no pieces known of Charles Edward; but of his brother the Cardinal, as Henry IX. there are specimens in silver. The medalet given by Anne is of gold and somewhat larger than that of James II.

The medals of William and Mary and of Anne are the most numerous and historically the most complete of the English series. This may be attributed to the stirring events due to the connection of the interests of England and Holland and to the number of active medallists of Holland and Germany.

The journey of William to England, his landing at Torbay, his subsequent coronation and the flight of James, are illustrated by a number of medals of which interesting examples are described in this Guide. The rebellion in Ireland, with the battles of the Boyne and of Aghrim, and the capture of towns, next follow. The events of the war with France, concluded in 1697 by the Peace of Ryswick, produced medals, English, Dutch, and French, recording the naval battle of La Hogue, the taking of Namur by the French and the retaking of that city by William, the defeats of William at Steinkirk and Landen, for which his own countrymen held him up to ridicule (No. 390), the unsuccessful attempt on Brest, the bombardment of Havre and Dunkirk, and the taking of Huy. The other events commemorated by the medals are the passing of the Toleration Act in 1689, the regency of Mary, the return of William to Holland, the death of Mary, the Darien expedition, and lastly the death of William.

The War of the Spanish Succession, which had begun shortly before the death of William, was even more fruitful in medals than the previous conflict with France. For the events of the campaigns of the Duke of Marlborough and of Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Netherlands and Germany, and of that in Spain, as well as for the naval victories, the reader must be referred to the descriptions given at pp. 89–104. A few other events, which happened during the reign of Anne and to which medals refer, are the establishment of the Queen Anne's Bounty, the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, the attempted invasion of Scotland by the Elder Pretender in 1708, and the trial of Sacheverell.

With the accession of the House of Hanover the medallic series of England loses much of its interest. The affairs of England and Holland being no longer so closely united, the Dutch artists ceased to execute medals for England, and at that time there were few medallists in this country. The series therefore from this period is far less complete and of very inferior style and work. The only important events recorded by the medals of George I. are the Jacobite rebellion in Scotland in 1715, the war of the Quadruple Alliance, and the siege of Gibraltar.

The first ten years of George II. are also devoid of medallic interest, and it is not until the outbreak of the war of the Austrian Succession that we have a piece of any merit. The best medals of this period are those of the battle of Dettingen executed by Haesling and of the battle of Minden by Holtzhey, a native of Amsterdam. Other recorded events of this reign are the taking of Porto Bello and the attempt on Carthagena by Admiral Vernon (of these events there are more than a hundred different medalets), and the Jacobite rebellion under the Younger Pretender, 1745–6. There is also a series of medals issued by the Society for the Promotion of Arts and Commerce, commemorating the conquest of Canada and the successes of the forces of England in India. In portrait-medals the most important are the works of Dassier, of whom mention has already been made.

The medals which illustrate the long reign of George III. down to the battle of Waterloo in 1815, at which point this exhibition closes, will be found to record all that is of importance during that period. The events are so numerous and varied that the reader must be referred to the descriptions, which will be found at pp. 113–130. The greater portion of the medals relate to the struggle of England with her American colonists, and to the subsequent wars with France, Spain, and Holland, by sea and land. Following these are several pieces commemorating some of the battles of the Peninsular War, and bearing portraits of the principal generals, and a few personal medals of statesmen and others, among whom may be noted Washington and Benjamin Franklin. The series of historical medals closes with one of the finest productions of the art of modern times, the Waterloo medal, designed and executed by Pistrucci, a work of 'surpassing size and beauty,' on which the artist spent a great portion of his life.

The selection of military and naval medals commences with that struck for the battle of Culloden, those which were issued before that period being included in the general series. The earliest pieces which belong to this class are probably the Armada medals; their variety, their oval form, as well as the circumstance that most have rings for suspension, and some have still chains attached to them, leaving little doubt but that they were intended as decorations. There is, however, no record that they were issued by authority. Charles I. is said to have granted in 1643 medals to soldiers who distinguished themselves in forlorn hopes; and the numerous badges issued during the Civil War by the King, and the Royalist and the Parliamentary generals were undoubtedly intended as military rewards and distributed among the soldiers who fought under them. No. 106, which was issued by Fairfax after the battle of Naseby, could only have served for such a purpose. During the Commonwealth the practice of bestowing decorative medals, both military and naval, became more frequent, and on several occasions was ordered by the Parliament. Of such medals is that distributed to all engaged at the battle of Dunbar (Nos. 149–150), and also those for Blake's victories over the Dutch, as well as several others.

Occasionally during the reigns of Charles II. and James II. military rewards were issued; but as none of these have rings for suspension, they cannot be considered as decorative medals. After the Commonwealth the medal for Culloden seems to be the first decorative piece: but even of this medal there is no record of its having been distributed by authority. Of that battle there is also a circular medal with loop in copper, the type being the Duke of Cumberland on horseback, which might also have served for distribution.

Again a long period elapses during which no decorative medals appear; and the victories of the Nile and Trafalgar would have remained unrewarded, but for the munificence and patriotism of two Englishmen, Alexander Davison and Matthew Boulton (see Nos. 539 and 544). In 1784 the East India Company acknowledged the services of its troops by awarding a medal for the campaign in the West of India, an example which originated a custom; and from that time, as long as India remained under the control of the Company, medals were awarded for all subsequent wars. The first medal issued by authority in England in this century is that given for the battle of Waterloo. It was conferred by order of the Prince Regent upon every officer and private present at that battle; but no acknowledgment was made of all the brilliant engagements in the Peninsular War till 1847, when a medal was issued for military services between the years 1793–1814 (No. 592). At the same time a corresponding medal for naval services was ordered to be struck for all naval engagements during the same period.

Since the accession of her Majesty medals have been awarded for every campaign, as well as others for 'meritorious service,' 'long service,' &c. Besides the medals issued by the authority of the Crown and those of the East India Company, there are a number of Regimental medals, of which some are exhibited. These were struck at the expense of the officers of the regiments for distribution among those who served under them; but this custom ceased when a public acknowledgment was paid to the services of the army.

The medals issued by the East India Company, being mostly of Indian work, have been classed separately, and will be found at the end of the series. As they were generally awarded only to Native troops, they are for the most part very scarce.

Before proceeding to give some account of the medallists themselves, it may be useful to state shortly in what manner they accomplished their work. This was done in four different ways, by casting, by the repoussé process, by engraving, and by striking. Specimens of all kinds of work will be found in this exhibition.

In the case of casting, a method which was first adopted in Italy in the fourteenth century, the mode was sometimes elaborate. A model having been made in wax, it was painted over several times with layers of cement made of fine earth or charcoal stiffened with some kind of lye, until this dried and hardened upon the wax, and the foundation of a mould was formed. When the mould was finished and completely hardened, the wax was melted out, and the medal was then cast in some hard metal, gold, silver, or copper, or in lead. By this process the first mould was destroyed, and all subsequent ones had to be taken from the medals themselves; consequently in time, with each fresh casting, they became less sharp and perfect. Another method of casting was, after executing a model in wax, to make moulds from it in sand, in which the medal was then cast. By this means the original mould was not destroyed, and would serve for use any number of times. But these casts were not so successful as those made after the Italian method; and in order to remove from the surface the roughness of the casting, the medals were then submitted to the medallist's or goldsmith's hands to be chased. In this manner a smooth and sharp surface was obtained; but the chasing required to be very skilfully done. The castings in lead on account of the softness of the material took a much more even surface than in the case of the harder metals, and rarely required any after-chasing.

The process of repoussé work in its first stage was somewhat similar to casting. A model was made in wax, from which a mould in a hard metal was cast, and on this hard mould was placed a thin silver or copper plate, which was then beaten into the mould with a hammer till it received its final form. This process was a long and difficult one, and required much skill; consequently the number of repoussé medals is very small as compared with those which were cast. Repoussé work had one great advantage, that of obtaining a high relief, and on good medals, a striking effect. Not unfrequently, especially in Germany, the mould was made of wood, and the plate then hammered into it; but this method was not so satisfactory, as the degree of sharpness was much lessened.

The process of engraving was more simple; but perhaps not less difficult. The medals were executed by direct incision with the graver or dry point on a plate of silver or steel, and thus every line told, and the excellence of the work depended upon the accuracy and sharpness of the outline.

In the case of struck medals, the die was engraved or cut in steel, which was hardened, and from which proofs were struck in gold, silver, copper, &c. This process was not at first successful, as the mode of striking was simply by the hammer, by which means sufficient force could not be obtained. This was, however, obviated by the invention of the screw, which was first adopted in the sixteenth century, but did not entirely supersede the use of the hammer until the middle of the seventeenth century. Medals are now as a rule produced by striking.

Of the medallists who worked during the reign of Henry VIII. we know nothing, and none of the medals bear the artists' signatures. The process employed was that of casting; but this was often done with little skill, and in consequence all the medals are highly chased. The medals of the reign of Edward VI. show no improvement in the art; but those of Mary and Philip, which are exhibited, being executed by the Italian artist Trezzo, are of far superior work. It is scarcely fair to class these among English medals, as they were executed in Madrid under the orders of Philip II., in whose service Trezzo was retained during the greater part of his life. That the works of this artist were much esteemed in his own time we learn from Vasari, who says, 'This master has no equal for portraits from life, and is an artist of the highest merit in other respects.' During the reign of Elizabeth, a great improvement is manifest in medallic art, which may be seen in the medals commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada, all of which, so far as it is known, were produced by native artists. There are other fine medals of this reign; but these are the work of foreign artists. Of such is the remarkable one with the portrait of Mary Queen of Scots by Primavera, and also a number of Dutch medals, among which are the splendid life-like portraits by Stephen of Holland. These medals are all cast and afterwards chased, and are certainly very fine examples of Dutch art. It is not improbable that this artist first studied at Nuremberg, which was the great school for medallists in Germany, and in which Albert Dürer himself had worked.

The medals of James I. are for the most part of Dutch work; and as few are signed, we are unable to ascertain by whom the majority were executed. As at this period the new invention of the screw for striking coins and medals was coming into general use, there are in consequence a number of struck medals. The engraved portraits of the royal family and others, classed at the end of the series of James I., are by Simon Passe. This artist worked chiefly with the graver in a neat clear style, which possesses much originality. His works have great merit in their class, especially his portraits, many of which were taken from life, and are remarkable for their precision and sharpness of outline. Besides these medals Passe executed frontispieces and bookplates, which are also well engraved. The abundant medals of the reign of Charles I. and of the Commonwealth were chiefly produced by three artists, Thomas Simon, his brother Abraham, and Thomas Rawlins. We must add to these the works of Nicholas Briot, who by his new invention of the balance for striking coins and medals had rendered great service to medallic art. His medals as well as his coins are all remarkable for their clearness of design and sharpness of execution. Briot did not reside in England after 1633, so that all his works date from the early part of Charles's reign. There are also a few medals by Jean Varin or Warin, who with George Dupré ranks first among French medallists. His medals are always cast, and generally in high relief. Of the two Simons it may be truly said that they stand first as English medallists, the beauty of their work having never been equalled in this country. As portraits the personal medals are faithful and expressive. The brothers produced joint as well as separate medals: in the case of a joint work Abraham appears to have made the model, whilst Thomas, who was a more skilful engraver, did the after-chasing. From an example in the British Museum, it is evident that the Simons first made their models in wax, and from these or from moulds in sand then cast their medals. The work of Thomas Simon was not confined to medals, for he executed all the Seals for the Commonwealth and for Charles II., as well as a fine set of coins which bear the portrait of the Protector. His last work of this kind, the Petition Crown of Charles II., has never been equalled in technical delicacy of execution, and is certainly the finest coin of modern times. Thomas Rawlins cannot be mentioned in such high terms as the Simons. His work was far above the average; but it failed to attain the sharpness and high finish which characterise that of his two rivals. Some of his coins are perhaps superior to his medals. Mention may be made here of the work of two other artists, specimens of whose medals will be found exhibited among those of Charles II. These are Pieter van Abeele and Müller, whom Bolzenthal calls 'der Meister Müller,' two Dutch medallists who worked in the repoussé style before and during the reign of Charles II. The medals of these artists are in high relief, and are executed with marked skill. Some of them are chased.

At the Restoration Rawlins was reinstated in the place of Chief Engraver to the Mint which he had held before the Commonwealth; and as his attention appears to have been chiefly directed to the coinage, there are very few medals by him after this time. It was not so with Thomas Simon, who was specially engaged to prepare dies for the new Seals, for he continued to work at his medals and produced a large number, including several for the coronation. There are some medals (Nos. 182–183), executed by him in anticipation of the Restoration, which were probably made with the object of retaining through the merit of his work the post of Chief Engraver, to which he had been appointed by Cromwell. In this he did not succeed, but was transferred from the Mint to the Office of Seals. Abraham Simon also continued to work for some time after the Restoration; but he held no official post. In the meanwhile a new set of artists had sprung up in England, who with few exceptions monopolised the medallic work in this country during the reign of Charles II. These are the Roettiers, who had been introduced to Charles during his stay in Holland, and of whom there were three brothers, John, Joseph, and Philip. It is of the eldest brother, John, that we have the most numerous and finest works. The character of the medals of this period differs very much from those of the Commonwealth. They are always struck, as the new invention of Briot had now quite superseded the hammer, and are in low relief. The execution of the work is good, the medals being very sharply cut and the portraits full of expression, whilst the reverses have a more picturesque style, somewhat approaching that of the Italian medals of the sixteenth century, but in lower relief. The only other medallist of this period who calls for notice is George Bower or Bowers, the style of whose work is similar to that of the Roettiers, although not of such good execution and finish. John Roettier and Bower still continued to work during the reign of James II., and during a portion of that of William and Mary; but with the accession of William, the Dutch period of medallic art in England began and continued till the death of Anne. The artists of this time are very numerous, but only the chief ones need be here enumerated, who are Jan and Martin Smeltzing, brothers, Jan Luder, Jan Boskam, Georg Hautsch, and Jan Crocker or Croker. This last artist not only executed a large series of medals, but he also cut all the dies for the coinage of Anne as well as many of that of George I. and George II. The style of the medals of the Dutch period is somewhat similar to that of the Roettiers, the relief being still lower. The reverse designs are also often picturesque, and, although minute in design, are usually distinct and in good perspective.

The accession of the House of Hanover introduced into England some German artists; but few of them are of any note. Of the medallists who worked in England from the accession of George I. to the end of the last century, are J. A. Dassier, who executed the large series of medals of English Sovereigns from William I. to George II.; Richard Yeo, who made the Culloden medal; Thomas Pingo, who made the Gibraltar medal of 1782, and several medals for societies; C. H. Küchler, who executed the Nile and Trafalgar medals; and J. G. Hancock, whose works are very numerous.

Medallic art of the present century in England owes all its merit to the work of Pistrucci, an Italian who came to this country in 1815 and remained here till his death in 1855, and to the work of the Wyon Family. To Pistrucci we are indebted for the famous Waterloo Medal, for many medals of learned societies, and for some of our finest coin-dies; and to the Wyons, for the military and naval medals as well as for a most extensive series of academical and other pieces. Since the resignation by Pistrucci of the office of Engraver to the Mint, the Wyons have held that post and have produced the greater portion of the dies for coins.

In concluding this sketch of medallic art in England, some mention should be made of the efforts of several public-spirited firms, which at the beginning of the present century produced series of medals commemorating some of the great events of English history at that time. The most important of these is the series of National Medals of James Mudie, on which work a number of foreign as well as native artists were employed; and it is remarkable that these engravers include eminent French medallists who commemorated the English successes in the wars with France.

My acknowledgments are due to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.R.S., for much assistance, and for the use of his valuable notes on Mr. Edward Hawkins' unpublished work referred to in the Preface; and also to the Hon. C. W. Fremantle, C.B., Deputy-Master of the Mint, to Mr. L. C. Wyon, and to Mr. A. B. Wyon, for important information and suggestions.

- Herbert A. Grueber.

Guide to English Medals Exhibited

EDWARD IV. 1461–1483.

1. John Kendal, 1480. Obv. Bust r., in armour, wearing cross of order of St. John. IO. KENDAL RHODI TVRCVPELLERIVS. Rev. Shield, arms of Kendal, the cross of St. John in chief. TEMPORE OBSIDIONIS TVRCHORVM. MCCCCLXXX. Bronze. Size 2·2. Cast and chased. Italian.

John Kendal was Prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in London in 1491 and 1501 (Willis's Mit. Abb.). He was Lieutenant of the Grand Master in Italy, England, Flanders, and Ireland, and in virtue of that office was engaged in 1480 in raising recruits for the defence of Rhodes against the Turks.

HENRY VIII. 1509–1547.

2. Badge of Rose. Obv. Bust of King l., wearing hat, cloak, &c. HENRICVS VIII. DEI GRA. REX ANGL. FRANC. DOM. HYB. Rev. Tudor rose; above, ODOR EIVS VT LIBANI; below, DEFENSOR FIDEI. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased.

This medal is without date; but the title of Lord of Ireland (DOM. HYB.) shows that it was executed before 1541.

3. Medallic Portrait. Bust of King, nearly full face, towards r., wearing hat with feather and ermine cloak; around neck, collar and medal, cross of St. George. Copper gilt. Size 3·9. Cast.

This portrait is after a painting by Holbein.

4–5. Portrait with title of "Head of the Church," 1545. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing cap, ermine cloak, and collar. HENRICVS OCTA. &c. FIDEI DEFENSOR ET IN TERR. ECCLE. ANGLI. ET HIBE. SVB CHRIST. CAPVT SVPREMVM. Rev. Two inscriptions of same import as that on the obverse; one in Hebrew, the other in Greek; above H. R.; below, Londini, 1545. Gold and silver. Size 2·05. Cast and chased.

Henry's supremacy over the church was acknowledged by the clergy 1531, and confirmed by Parliament 1534. This medal was not struck till 1545.

6. Badge. Half-length figure of King, full face, wearing hat, robes trimmed with fur, &c. HENRIC. OCT. REX ANGL. Z. FRANC. Laurel-border. Silver. Oval. Size 2·3. Cast and chased.

This may have been worn as a badge of some society.

7. Anne Boleyn, 1534. Obv. Bust of Queen, nearly full face, towards l., wearing coif with veil, &c., in field, A. R. THE MOOST HAPPI. ANNO 1534. Reverse plain. Lead. Size 1·5. Cast.

Anne Boleyn, daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, and second wife of Henry VIII., married 1535, and beheaded 19th May, 1536.

8. Sir Thomas More, 1535. Obv. Bust r., wearing biretta and fur cloak. THOMAS MORVS ANGLIÆ CANCEL. Rev. A cypress felled, the axe in the trunk. SVAVIVS OLET. Copper. Size 2·3. Cast and chased.

Sir Thomas More, born 1480, was appointed Keeper of the Great Seal 1529; beheaded 6 July, 1535. The reverse typifies More under the form of a cypress, which has fallen under the stroke of the axe, but whose odour has thus become more fragrant.

9. Another. Obv. Bust of More, three quarters l., wearing biretta, fur cloak, &c. EFFIGIES THOMÆ MORI MARTIRIS ANGLI. Rev. Bust of St. Thomas à Becket, three quarters r., in archiepiscopal dress, holding cross and book. S. THOMAS ARCHIEP. CANTVAR. MART. AN. 1171. Silver. Size 1·45. All engraved.

This medal draws a parallel between the death of St. Thomas à Becket and Sir Thomas More, both champions of their faith, and both put to death under royal displeasure.

10. Thomas Cromwell, 1538. Obv. Bust l., wearing cap and gown trimmed with fur. IMAGO D. THOMÆ CRVMVELLI REG'. SECRET'. ANo. 38. Rev. Within garter, armorial shield of Cromwell, two coats quarterly: coronet attached to rim for suspension. Silver-gilt. Size 2·05. Cast and chased.

Thomas Cromwell, born 1490, was secretary to Wolsey, and afterwards promoted by Henry VIII. to the highest offices of the State; created Earl of Essex April 1540 and beheaded in July of same year.

11. Michael Mercator, 1539. Obv. Bust, three quarters l., wearing cap, fur cloak, &c. A REGE ANGLORVM PRIMI MILITIS CREATI EX VENLO EFFIGIES. Rev. MICHAEL MERCATOR ÆTATIS SVÆ XLVIII. GRATIA DEO ET REGI. MDXXXIX.; Engraved. Silver. Size 1·8. Cast and chased.

In 1528 Michael Mercator, or, as Sir Thomas More in writing to Wolsey calls him, Michael the Gueldrois, was sent to Henry VIII. by Mons. de Ysselstein, on a confidential mission respecting the affairs of the Low Countries. Again in 1538 in two letters of Floris d'Egmont, Count of Buren and Lord of Ysselstein, one to Henry VIII. and the other to Cromwell, we find him requesting the kind reception of Michael Mercator. These letters also refer to Mercator's artistic skill, and we learn from Puteanus or Du Puy that he excelled in medallic portraits, and that this medal, which is of contemporary workmanship, was executed by himself. It was on this second visit to England that he received the order of Knighthood from the King.

12. Another. Similar: bust in profile l., and reverse inscription in relief. Lead. Size 1·8. Cast.

EDWARD VI. 1547–1553.

13. Portrait, 1547. Obv. Half-length figure of King l., wearing cap with feather, doublet, chain, &c.; in r. hand, scroll. EDVARDVS V. (sic) DEI GRA. AN. REX; incuse. No reverse. Lead. Size 2·9. Cast and chased.

A contemporary cast in lead, possibly a proof from a silver plate. This medal is unique, and was obtained by exchange from the Museum at Geneva.

14. Coronation, 1547. Obv. Half-length figure of King r., crowned, in armour, holding sword and orb. Inscription in Latin in three circles giving his titles, date of coronation MDXLVII. XX. FEBRVA. &c. Rev. Two inscriptions, one in Hebrew, the other in Greek of the same import as that on obverse; above, Lambhith, i.e. Lambeth. Gold. Size 2·35. Cast and chased.

The first coronation medal executed in England. The inscriptions are similar to those on the medals of Henry VIII., struck to commemorate his supremacy over the church. (Nos. 4-5.)

MARY. 1553–1558.

(Medals by Giacomo da Trezzo.2)

15. Condition of England, 1554? Obv. Half-length figure of Queen l., wearing coif with veil, embroidered gown, pendant pearl, &c. MARIA I. REG. ANGL. FRANC. ET HIB. FIDEI DEFENSATRIX. IAC. TREZ. Rev. Mary, as Peace, seated r., holding olive branch and palm, and burning instruments of war; behind, group of suppliants; in distance, circular temple. CECIS VISVS TIMIDIS QVIES. Copper. Size 2·6. Cast and chased.

The design on the reverse of this medal is probably emblematic of the condition of England. By Evelyn and others it was supposed to refer to the suppression of Wyat's rebellion, and to the encouragement given to the Papal party. It was probably executed by Trezzo during his residence at Madrid.

16. Portraits of Mary and Philip, 1555. Obv. Half-length figure of Queen l., same as preceding. Rev. Half-length figure of Philip II., king of Spain r., in armour. PHILIPPVS REX, &c., IAC. TREZZO F. 1555. Copper-gilt. Size 2·6. Cast and chased.

This medal was executed some little time after the marriage of Mary and Philip in 1554.

17–18. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., wearing coif with veil and embroidered gown. MARIA I. REG. ANGL. &c. Rev. Bust of Philip r., in armour. PHILIP. D. G. HISP. REX. Gold and silver. Size 1·45. Cast and chased.

The portraits are similar to those on the previous medals.

ELIZABETH. 1558–1603.

19. Badge of Garter. Obv. Bust of Queen l., wearing coronet of pearls, large ruff, &c. Inscr. of Garter. Rev. Ornamented shield, royal arms supported by angel. Inscr. of Garter. Silver. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast and chased.

Probably executed for presentation on special occasions.

20. "Phoenix Badge," 1574. Obv. Bust of Queen l., wearing pearls in hair, ruff, &c. ELIZABETHA D. G. ANG. &c. Around–

Hei mihi quod tanto virtus perfusa decore

Non habet eternos inviolata dies.

Rev. Phoenix amid flames: above, monogram of Queen, crowned, and 1574 engraved roughly; around,

Felices Arabes, mundi quibus unica phoenix

Phoenicem reparat depereundo novam

miseros Anglos, mundi quibus unica phoenix

Ultima fit nostro, tristia fata, solo.

Silver. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

The legends may indicate the apprehension for the Queen's life occasioned by the severe plague, which visited London in 1574.

21. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, &c., 1588–9. Obv. Bust of Queen in high relief, facing, crowned, wearing high ruff, &c., and holding sceptre; and orb. DITIOR IN TOTO NON ALTER CIRCVLVS ORBE. Rev. Bay-tree uninjured by lightning on inhabited island inscribed, NON IPSA PERICVLA TANGVNT: border of leaves. Gold. Oval. Size 2·35. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

This medal records not only the defeat of the Spanish Armada, but also the averting of other dangers which at that time threatened both England and her Sovereign. The Queen of Scots was dead; James of Scotland had been conciliated; the Duke of Guise was dead, and France and the Vatican were baffled. The bay-tree was deemed incapable of injury from lightning.

22–23. Another. Similar: on obverse, bust of Queen, three quarters l., without sceptre and orb, and on reverse, E. R. in field, and no buildings on island. Gold and silver (with original chain). Size 1·9. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

24. Another. Obv. Similar: bust of Queen l., with pearls in hair, ELIZABETH. D. G. ANGLIE, &c. Rev. Ark in waves; above, sun. SEVAS (sic) TRANQVILLA PER VNDAS. Silver. Size 2. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

This medal refers only to the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The English flag-ship was called the "Royal Ark," which may have suggested the reverse type.

25. Another. Obv. Pope, kings and others seated in council, with eyes bandaged; floor covered with spikes; above, O COECAS HOMINVM MENTES, O PECTORA COECA; around, DVRVM EST CONTRA STIMVLOS CALCITRARE. (Acts ix. 5.) Rev. Fleet driven on rocks; above, VENI VIDE VIVE. 1588; around, TV DEVS MAGNVS ET MAGNA FACIS TV SOLVS DEVS. (Ps. lxxxvi. 10.) Silver. Size 2. Struck. Dutch.

The obverse satirizes the confederation formed against Elizabeth by the Pope, the King of Spain, the Emperor, and others; the reverse represents the defeat of the Armada.

26. Another. Obv. Naval engagement, destruction of Spanish fleet. FLAVIT ET DISSIPATI SVNT. 1588; above, Jehovah, in Hebrew. Rev. Church on rock amid stormy waves; beneath, shield, arms of Prince Maurice crowned. ALLIDOR NON LÆDOR. Silver. Size 2. Struck. Dutch.

The destruction of the Armada was due in great measure to the violence of a storm. As this medal bears the shield of Prince Maurice, it is probable that it was struck by his direction in Holland.

27. Mary, Queen of Scots, 1567? Obv. Bust r., wearing cap with veil, ruff, &c. MARIA STOVVAR REGI. SCOTI. ANGLI. IA. PRIMAVE. Reverse plain. Copper. Size 2·5. Cast. By G. Primavera.3

This medal presents us with a remarkable portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, and is the work of Giacomo Primavera. Its date is uncertain, but judging from other existing portraits of Mary, it was probably executed about the same time as the Morton portrait, which was painted by order of Mary during her imprisonment in Lochleven Castle, 1566–67. There are modern casts of this medal, to which a reverse has been added. (See guide to Italian medals, No. 181.)

28. Richard Shelley, 1577. Obv. Half-length figure r., in armour with cross of Knights of St. John on breastplate. RICARDVS SCELLEIVS PRIOR ANGLIAE AN. A. LXIIII. Rev. Arm issuing from clouds holding shield with crest, arms of Shelley. PRO FIDE SPOLIATI CLYPEVS OBSES. Copper. Size 2·75. Cast and chased. Italian work.

Sir Richard Shelley born in 1514 was a Knight of Malta, Grand Prior of England, and as Turcopelier, took part in the defence of Malta against the Turks in 1565. He died abroad, probably at Venice, where this medal appears to have been executed.

29. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1587. Obv. Bust, three-quarters l., wearing cap and armour much ornamented. ROBE. CO. LEIC. ET IN BELG. GVBER. 1587. Rev. Sheep in flat country, dog leaving them; under dog, INVITVS DESERO; around, NON GREGEM SED INGRATOS. Silver. Size 1·85. Cast and chased. Dutch.

Leicester, being superseded in the command of the combined armies of the English and Protestants of the United Provinces by Maurice second son of the Prince of Orange, left the country in disgust. This and the following medals were probably executed for Leicester before his departure from Holland.

30. Another. Similar: type varied, sheep in hilly country, &c. Silver. Size 1·85. Cast and chased. Dutch.

MEDALS BY STEPHEN OF HOLLAND.4

31. William, Earl of Pembroke, 1562. Obv. Bust r., in armour, head bare. GVILI. COMES PENNEBROCK. Ao. 1562. STE. H. Rev. Dragon, beside which, allegorical female figure pointing at temple of Virtue. DRACO HIC VER'. VIRTVTVV?. CVSTOS. Silver. Size 1·75. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

William Herbert, statesman and soldier, son of Sir Richard Herbert, elected K.G. in 1548, and created Earl of Pembroke in 1551. He died in 1570. The Earl's badge was a green dragon, which may have suggested the reverse.

32. Edmund Withipoll, 1562. Bust r., in toga, head bare. EDMVND WITHIPOLL. ÆT. 48. 1562. Silver. Size 1·7. Cast and chased. A plaque.

Edmund Withipoll with his father? Paul Withipoll received in 1545 the great tithes of Walthamstow with the manor and rectory, and also the manor of Marks in Essex upon the dissolution of the monastery of St. Helen's.

33. Another. Obv. Bust, three quarters l., wearing bonnet, doublet, &c. EDMVND WITHIPOLL. Æ. 48. STE. H. F. Silver. Size 1·7. Cast and chased. A plaque.

34. Sir Thomas Stanley, 1562. Obv. Bust r., wearing bonnet, doublet, &c. THOMAS STANLEY. ÆT. 50. STE. H. Rev. Shield, arms of Stanley, surmounted by crest, a stag. Silver. Size 1·7. Cast and chased.

Sir Thomas Stanley, third son of Thomas Stanley of Dalgarth in Cumberland, was one of the assay masters of the mint during the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., appointed controller by Elizabeth, and Master 1573. He died 1576.

35. Richard Martin and his wife Dorcas Eglestone, 1562. Obv. Bust of Martin r., wearing bonnet, cloak, &c. RICHARD MARTIN. ÆT. 28. Ao. 1562. STE. H. Rev. Bust of Mistress Martin l., wearing cap, fur cloak, &c. DORCAS EGLESTONE VX. RICHARD MARTIN. ÆT. 25. Silver. Size 2·25. Cast and chased.

Richard Martin was Lord Mayor of London, 1589, and at various times Warden and Master of the Mint. Died 1617. His wife Dorcas died 1599.

36. Elizabeth, Marchioness of Northampton, 1562. Obv. Bust l., wearing cap, gown, &c. ELIZABET. MARQVI. NORTHAMPTON. STE. H. F. Rev. Faith holding book, and supporting cross. SOLA TVTA FIDES. Ao. 1562. Silver. Size 1·55. Cast and chased.

Elizabeth, daughter of George Lord Cobham, was the second wife of William Parr, Marquis of Northampton.

37. Maria Newce, wife of John Dymock, 1562. Obv. Bust l., wearing cap, gown, &c. MARIA NEWCE VX. IOH?S DIMOCK. STE. H. Rev. Allegorical female figure holding stag by the horns near a fountain. SICVT CERV'. AD F?TES AQVARV?. (cf. Ps. 41. 2.) Silver. Size 1·5. Cast and chased.

From the 'visitation' of Hertfordshire 1579 it would appear that this lady was one of the daughters of Clement Newce of Much Hadham, citizen and mercer of London, who died in 1579.

JAMES I. 1603–1625.

38. James, as King of Scotland. Marriage, 1590. Obv. Bust of King r., laureate, in armour. IACOBVS 6. D. G., &c. Rev. Between I.R. crowned and 6 beneath, thistles surmounted by crown, &c. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSET. 1590. Gold. Size 1·6. Cast and chased.

James married in 1590 Anne daughter of Frederick II. King of Denmark.

39. Accession to English Throne, 1603. Obv. Bust of King, three quarters r., laureate, wearing armour, cloak, &c. IAC. I. TOTIVS INS. BRYT. IMP. ET FRANC. ET HIB. REX. Rev. Royal shield, garnished and crowned. IVGI CONCORDIA FLORENT. Silver. Size 1·7. Struck.

On this medal James styles himself Emperor. This is the first instance of an English sovereign assuming the title.

40. Queen Anne (of Denmark): coronation, 1603. Bust of Queen, three quarters l., hair arranged high, wearing lace collar, jewels, &c. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. A plaque.

The coronation of James and Anne was celebrated on the 25th July 1603.

41. Queen Anne (of Denmark), 1619? Obv. Bust of Queen l., wearing necklace, embroidered gown, &c. ANNA D. G. ANGL. &c. Rev. Pine tree crowned; above, name of Jehovah in clouds: across tree, scroll inscribed, LA MIA GRANDEZZA DALL ECCELSO. Silver. Size 2. Cast and chased.

This medal was probably struck upon the death of the Queen in 1619. The device is an illustration of her motto.

42. Peace with Spain, 1604. Obv. Bust of King, three quarters r., wearing hat crowned, doublet, &c. IACOBVS D. G. ANG. &c. Rev. Peace and Religion with emblems, &c. HINC PAX COPIA CLARAQ. RELIGIO; in ex., A. 1604. Gold. Size 1·45. Struck, with ring for suspension.

This medal was struck to commemorate the peace concluded with Spain in 1604.

43. Another. Similar: with ornamental border and loop for suspension. Silver. Size 1·9. Cast and chased.

44. Another. Similar: bust of King r., laureate, wearing armour, &c. Legend varied. Silver. Size 1·5. Cast and chased.

45. Gunpowder Plot, 1650. Obv. Snake gliding amongst lilies and roses. DETECTVS QVI LATVIT. S. C. Rev. Radiate name of Jehovah within crown of thorns. non DorMItastI AntIstes IaCobI; chronogrammatic. Silver. Size 1·15. Struck. Dutch.

This medal was struck in Holland by order of the Senate to commemorate the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot.

46–47. Alliance of England, France and the United Provinces, 1609. Obv. Radiate name of Jehovah above three hearts united. IVNCTA CORDA FIDELIVM. Rev. Rose of England, Lily of France, both crowned, and Belgic Lion. CONTRA VIM TIRANNORVM. 1609. Gold and silver. Size 2. Struck. Dutch.

Struck by order of the Government of the United Provinces upon the occasion of the alliance of the three powers after the delivery of the Provinces from the Spaniards.

48. Henry, Prince of Wales, 1612? Obv. Bust of Prince, three-quarters l., in armour, &c. HENRICVS PRINCEPS. Rev. Royal shield with label in chief, crowned. FAX MENTIS HONESTÆ GLORIA. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck.

Henry Prince of Wales died 6th Nov. 1612, when this medalet was probably struck.

49. Frederick, Count Palatine, King of Bohemia, &c., 1627. Obv. Bust r., laureate, wearing deep collar, armour, &c. FRIDERICVS D. G. REX BOHE. &c. S. D. R. F. 1627. Rev. Lion sejant gardant crowned, holding sceptre and orb; above, five hands from clouds supporting crown. Gold. Oval. Size 2·15. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. German work.

Frederick, Count Palatine, Elector, &c., married, 1613, Elizabeth, daughter of James I., elected King of Bohemia, 1619. The five hands which support the crown represent Bohemia and the four Protestant provinces, Moravia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia, which favoured his election. The lion is the crest of the Counts Palatine.

50. Marriage of Frederick, Count Palatine, and Princess Elizabeth, 1613. Obv. Bust of Frederick r., in armour, &c., FRIDERICVS D. G. COM. PAL. R. &c. Rev. Bust of Elizabeth, three quarters l., wearing high ruff, embroidered gown, &c. ELISABETHA D. G. COM. PAL. R. &c.; ornamental border. Silver-gilt. Size 1·65. Cast.

The marriage of the Elector Frederick with the Princess Elizabeth took place 11th Feb. 1612–13.

51. Coronation of Frederick, King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth, 1619. Obv. Busts r., of King laureate, and in armour, &c.; of Queen draped; above, VIVANT FLOREANT; below, C. PRIVIL. S. R. M.; around, FRIDERICVS ET ELISABETHA D. G. CORON. R. R. BOEMIAE. Rev. Within inscription of Garter, lion sejant gardant, holding sword, before rose-tree bearing roses, and orb, inscribed M. D. I. V. Æ.; in background, thorns; below, serpent; above, VT ROSA INTER SPINAS. Silver. Oval. Size 2·05. Cast and chased. German work.

Frederick was elected Knight of the Garter Feb. 1613.

52. Maurice, Prince of Orange, &c., 1613. obv. Bust, three-quarters r., in armour, &c. MAVRITIVS AVR. PRINC. &c., 1613. Rev. Shield, arms of Maurice with the Garter; above, crown. Silver. Oval. Size 2·35. Cast; with ring for suspension.

Maurice, Prince of Orange, was elected Knight of the Garter, 4th February, 1613.

53. Another, 1624. Obv. Within border of shields of the United Provinces, &c., bust, three quarters r., in armour. MAVRITIVS D. G. PRINCEPS AVRIACÆ, &c., J. M. BYLAER f. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, crowned shield, arms of Maurice with inscr. of Garter; beneath, le Maintiendray, and, 16 cum Privil. 24. Silver. Size 2·6. Struck. Dutch, by J. M. Bylaer.

Vanloon (II. 55) thinks that this medal was struck in commemoration of the victories gained in 1624 by the Dutch fleet over that of Spain off Peru and Brazil.

54. Badge. Obv. Bust of King, three quarters r., wearing hat with feather, &c. IACOBVS D. G. MAG. BRITA. &c. Rev. Ark in sea; above, clouds raining. STET SALVVS IN VNDIS. Silver. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast.

The ark probably symbolizes the Church, and is emblematic of England after the disturbances of the Reformation.

55. Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, 1618? Obv. Bust of Nicholas Wadham, three quarters r., wearing cloak, &c. WHEN CHRIST WHO IS OUR LIFE SHAL APPEARE. Rev. Bust of Dorothy Wadham three-quarters l., wearing hat, embroidered gown, &c. WE SHAL APPEARE WITH HIM IN GLORY: on either side, border, floral wreath united by skulls. Silver. Oval. Size 2·1. Cast and chased.

Nicholas Wadham, founder of the college named after him at Oxford, died 1609. His wife died 1618. This medal is supposed to have been then struck.

56. Richard Harington, 1609. Obv. Bust l., wearing cloak and armour. RIC. DE HARINGT?. Rev. Cupid with club and bow before a tree from which fall leaves, which he has beaten down: the tree is on a mound inscribed, 1609. AMOR NON FLORE SED FRVCTV. Silver-gilt. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

Unknown.

57. Sir Thomas Bodley, 1612. Obv. Bust r., in academical dress TH. BODLY EQ. AVR. PVBL. BIBLIOTH. OXON. FVNDATOR. WARIN. Rev. Aeternitas holding heads of Sun and Moon. R. P. LITERARIAE AETERNITAS. Lead. Size 2. Struck.

Sir Thomas Bodley, the founder of the public library at Oxford, died in 1612. This medal, the work of Varin, was not executed till some years after his death.5

ENGRAVED PORTRAITS BY SIMON PASSE.6

58. Elizabeth. Obv. Bust of Queen, three quarters r., crowned, wearing high ruff, &c.; above, Si. Passe. Rev. Royal shield within Garter, crowned, supporters, lion and griffin; above, DIEV ET MON DROIT; beneath, on tablet:

QVI LEO DE IVDA EST

ET FLOS DE IESSE LEONES

PROTEGAT ET FLORES

ELIZABETHA TVOS.

Silver. Oval. Size 2·4.

This plate was not engraved till some years after the death of Elizabeth. It is copied from a miniature by Isaac Oliver. The inscription is said to have been the extempore production of a Westminster scholar, Elizabeth herself having proposed her armorial bearing as the subject of an epigram.

59. James I., 1616. Obv. Bust of King, three quarters r., head bare, wearing ruff, collar of Garter, &c., above, crown dividing I. R., at sides SP fe. Jacobus D. G. Mag. Britt. &c. Rev. Royal shield within Garter, supporters, &c.; below, motto, BEATI PACIFICI. IACOBUS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ, &c. Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

60. Another. Obv. Varied; King wears hat; below, Simon Passæus sculp.: no legend. Rev. Similar. Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

61. Queen Anne (of Denmark), 1616. Obv. Bust of Queen, three quarters l., wearing high collar, &c.; above, crown dividing A. R.; at sides SP fe. Anna D. G. Mag. Britt. &c. Rev. Danish shield of Queen crowned, with supporters; below, her motto, La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso. ANNA DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ, &c. Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

62. Charles, Prince of Wales, 1616. Obv. Bust of Prince, three quarters r., head bare, wearing ruff, armour, &c. Carolus Princeps Walliæ. Rev. Shield of Prince crowned within Garter: below, Anno D. 1616. Si. Pa. fec. ILLUSTRISS. ET POTEN. PR. CAROLUS PRINCEPS WALLIÆ DUX CORN. YOR ET ALB. ETC. Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

63. Another, 1616. Obv. Bust of Prince, three quarters r., head bare, wearing ruff, doublet, &c. ILLUSTRISS. ET POTEN. PRINC. CAROLUS, &c.: below, Simon Passæus sculp. Rev. Prince on horseback r.; in the distance, view of London: below, Prince's plumes between CAROLUS PRINCEPS. S. P. sc. Silver. Oval. Size 2·4.

64. James. I., Anne of Denmark, and Prince Charles, 1616. Obv. Busts of King, Queen and Prince similar to those on Nos. 60–62. Rev. Two shields, arms of King and Queen with supporters, &c., below, Prince's plumes and mottoes of King and Queen. POTENTISS. IACOBVS D. G. MAG. BRITT. &c. Silver. Oval. Size 2·5.

65. Frederick, Count Palatine, Elizabeth, and Prince Frederick, 1616. Obv. Portraits, facing, of Frederick, Elizabeth his wife, and their eldest son Prince Frederick. Rev. Two shields, arms of Frederick and Elizabeth supported by two lions: above, his helmet and crest; below, his motto, SVPERATA 14 TELLVS SYDERA Donat. EFFIG. ILLVST. PR. FREDERICI D. G. CO. PAL. &c. Silver. Oval. Size 2·5.

The young prince here represented with his parents was Prince Frederick, who was drowned on a journey from Amsterdam to Utrecht 1626.

66. George Villiers, Marquis of Buckingham, 1618. Obv. Bust, three quarters r., wearing ruff, embroidered doublet, &c. NOBILISS. DN'. GEORGIUS VILL. MARCHIO BUCKINGHAMIÆ, &c. Rev. Shield, arms of the Marquis within Garter, supporters, helmet, crest, and motto, Fidei Coticula Crux; behind, two anchors. Silver. Oval. Size 2·4.

George Villiers was created Marquis of Buckingham in 1618, and Duke in 1623, so that this piece must have been executed between those dates. He was assassinated in 1628.

67. Richard Sackville, Earl of Dorset, Lord Buckhurst. Obv. Half-length figure, three quarters l., wearing high collar, &c. Rev. Shield, arms of the Earl with supporters, &c., and motto, TOVSIOVR LOYAL. CLARISSIMVS D'. RICHARD'. SACKVILE BARO BVCKHVRSTIÆ COMES DORCESTRIÆ. Silver. Oval. Size 2·15.

Richard Sackville, third Earl of Dorset, born 1589, died 1624.

CHARLES I. 1625–1649.

68. Coronation, 1626. Obv. Bust of King r., crowned, &c., CAROLVS I. D. G. MAG. BRITAN. &c. N.B. Rev. Arm issuing from cloud brandishing sword. DONEC PAX REDDITA TERRIS: in ex., CORON. 2. FEBRV. 1626. Gold. Size 1·2. Struck. By Nicholas Briot.7

The reverse inscription refers to the determination of Charles to assist the United Provinces in establishing their independence, and to restore Frederick Count Palatine to the throne of Bohemia. 15

69. Dominion of the sea, 1630. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing ruff, armour, &c. CAROLVS I. D. G. MAG. BRITAN?IÆ, &c. N. BRIOT. Rev. Man-of-war in full sail. NEC META MIHI QVÆ TERMINVS ORBI. Gold. Size 2·4. Cast and chased. By Nicholas Briot.

This medal was executed in assertion of the claims of England to the dominion of the sea.

70. Another. Similar. Silver. Size 2·2. Cast and chased.

71. Another. Similar: on obverse, portrait much varied, bust with collar, &c.; legend and signature varied; on arm, 1639. Silver. Size 2·35. Cast and chased.

This is a reproduction of the previous medal with an older portrait.

72. Birth of Prince Charles, 1630. Obv. Bust of King l., crowned &c. CAROLVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. Rev. Prince on couch between Mercury and Mars, holding wreaths over his head. REDDAT AVOS. MAII 29. 1630. Gold. Size 1·2. Struck. By Nicholas Briot.

73. Reverses of Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia, 1632. Obv. Busts of Frederick and Elizabeth r.; King laur., &c. FRID. ET ELIZ. D. G. RR. BOH. &c. Rev. Setting sun. SOL OCCIDENS RENASCITVR. EC. I. 1632. Silver. Size 2·05. Cast and chased.

The successes of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, who was assisted by the English, revived for a short time the hopes of Frederick of regaining the throne of Bohemia, from which he had been driven by Ferdinand II., the Emperor, in 1620. This medal, which is of coarse work, was executed in Germany. The artist is unknown.

74. Scottish Coronation, 1633. Obv. Bust of King l., crowned, &c. CAROLVS D. G. SCOTIÆ ANGLIÆ, &c. Rev. Thistle and rose-tree combined. HINC NOSTRÆ CREVERE ROSÆ; in ex., CORON. 18. IVNII. 1633. B.; on edge, EX AVRO VT IN SCOTIA REPERITVR. BRIOT FECIT EDINBVRGI 1633. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck. By Nicholas Briot.

This medalet was struck upon the coronation of Charles at Edinburgh. The gold of which these medals were made was found in the mines situated in Niddesdale and Clydesdale. There are specimens in silver of this medal with the same inscription on the edge.

75. Another. Similar: varied and thin: no inscr. on edge. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck.

16

76–77. Return from Scottish Coronation to London, 1633. Obv. King on horse prancing l., &c.; above, eye of Providence; on the ground, plumed helmet, 1633, &c. CAROLVS AVGVSTISS. ET INVICTISS. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. ET HIB. MONARCHA. Rev. View of London; above, sun in clouds. SOL ORBEM REDIENS SIC REX ILLVMINAT VRBEM. E. (Edinburgh). Gold and silver. Size 1·65. Struck.

Issued upon the return of the King to London after his coronation at Edinburgh in 1633.

78. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing laced collar, &c. CAR. D. G. MAG. BRITAN. &c. Rev. Same. Silver. Size 1·6. Cast and chased.

79. Dutch Fishery, 1636. Obv. Busts of King towards r., and Queen r., &c. CAR. ET MAR. D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c.; in field, 1636. Rev. Justice and Peace seated kissing each other, scales and olive-branch held by genii on either side. IVSTITIA ET PAX OSCVLATÆ SVNT. PSAL. 84. Silver. Size 3·05. Cast and chased. By Heinrich Reitz.

By a treaty between England and Holland it was stipulated that the Dutch should pay £30,000 for the permission to fish in British waters. This medal was executed in Germany by Heinrich Reitz the younger, a medallist of some note, who flourished during the early part of the seventeenth century, and who worked principally for Christian I. of Saxony and the Princes of the Houses of Brandenburg and Brunswick.

80. Charles, Prince of Wales, 1638. Obv. Bust of King l., crowned, &c. CAROLVS I. D. G. ANGL. &c. B. Rev. Prince Charles on horseback r., &c., behind, plumes with motto. ILLVST. CAROLVS PRINCEPS WALLIÆ: in ex., two C's interlinked. Silver. Size 1·25. Struck. By Nicholas Briot.

Charles was first styled Prince of Wales in 1638, at which time he also received the whole profits of the principality and earldom of Chester, and held his court apart from his father.

81. Betrothal of William, Prince of Orange, and Princess Mary, 1641. Obv. William and Mary, joining hands beneath rays proceeding from dove; above each, cherub in clouds holding wreath, distant view of palace: behind each, and in ex., inscriptions referring to their births and betrothal, with An? 1641. 12 Mai. Rev. William as Pallas trampling on Bellona and receiving olive-branch from Mary in character of Peace; around them, Victory, Plenty, and genius of Holland with emblems; above, 17 and in ex., inscriptions: below, J. Blum. Fe. Silver. Size 2·85. Struck. By Johann Blum.

William, son of Henry, Prince of Orange, mar. in 1641, Mary, dau. of Charles I. They were the parents of William III., King of England. This medal is the work of Johann Blum, of Bremen, who also executed a large number of dies for Christian IV. and Frederick III. of Denmark.

82. Marriage of William, Prince of Orange and Princess Mary, 1641. Obv. Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, seated on throne with sword in r. hand and band with seven shields of the United Provinces in l., his feet on prostrate foes; distant view of fortified city, with Prince at the head of his troops, &c. LIBERTAS PATRIÆ, ME DEFENSORE, TRIVMPHAT, &c. Rev. Palace garden within enclosure, at the entrance William receives Mary; above them, Belgic Lion, and on either side, figures of Foecunditas and Mars: above, cherubs in clouds, and, in Hebrew, Jehovah. QVO TE MARS ET AMOR VOCAT INTRA DIVA, &c. S. D. Silver. Size 2·85. Struck. Dutch. By Sebastian Dadler.

This medal commemorates the arrival of William and Mary in Holland after their marriage. It was executed by Sebastian Dadler, a native of Strasburg and chief goldsmith at the Imperial Court. Dadler worked also for George William, Elector of Brandenburg, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and for the House of Orange. Died circ. 1654.

83. Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Knight of the Garter, 1626. Obv. Bust r., in armour, &c. FREDER. HENR. D.G. PRINCEPS AVRIAC. COM. NASS: around, seven shields, arms of the United Provinces, connected by bands held by two hands with sheaf of arrows. Rev. Within Garter, crowned shield, arms of Prince. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck. Dutch.

The Garter was conferred upon the Prince of Orange in 1626, the ceremony of investment taking place at the Hague.

84. Cecil, Lord Baltimore and his wife, 1632. Obv. Bust of Lord Baltimore, three quarters r., in armour. DM?S CÆCILIVS BARO DE BALTEMORE ABSOLV. DM?S TERRÆMARIÆ ET AVALONIÆ &c. Rev. Bust of Lady Baltimore three quarters r. D?N?A ANNA ARVNDELIA PVLCHERRIMA ET OPTIMA CONIVX CÆCILII PREDICTI. Silver. Size 1·9. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

Cecil, Lord Baltimore mar. Anne Arundel, dau. of the 18 first Lord Wardour. In 1632 the king granted him the province of Maryland in America, which remained in the possession of his descendants till the establishment of the American Independence in 1783.

85. Richard Weston, Earl of Portland, 1633. Bust r., wearing ruff, medal of George, &c. DO. RICH. WESTON CO. DE PORTLAND, &c. VARIN. Lead. Size 3·55. Cast and chased. Plaque in high relief by J. Varin.

Richard Weston, Earl of Portland, filled the offices of High Treasurer of England, Captain and Governor of the Isle of Wight, &c. Died in 1634.

86. Thomas Cary, 1633. Bust r., wearing deep collar, armour, &c. THO. CARY R. CAROL. CVBICVLAR. ÆTATIS SVE 35. 1633. Copper. Size 3·3. Cast and chased. Plaque in high relief.

Thomas Cary, son of Sir Robert Cary, warden of the Marches of the North, died in 1649. This plaque is not signed, but it is the work of Varin: some specimens bear the artist's signature.

87. Margaret Cary, 1633. Bust r., wearing low dress, &c. MARGARITA VXOR THO. CARY ÆTATIS SVE 25. 1633. VARIN. Copper. Size 3·3. Cast and chased. Plaque in high relief by J. Varin.

After the death of Cary, Margaret his widow mar. Sir Edward Herbert, Attorney-General to Charles I., and Lord Chief Justice to Charles II. during his exile.

88. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, 1641. Bust, three quarters r., in armour. Gold. Size 1. Repoussé work and chased. Plaque in high relief.

Thomas Wentworth, born 1593, was President of the North 1628, Lord Deputy of Ireland 1633, and created Earl of Strafford 1639. Beheaded 1641.

89. Declaration of Parliament, 1642. Obv. Bust of King r., crowned, wearing laced collar, order of George, &c. Should hear both houses of parliamant for true Religion and subiects fredom stand; engraved. Rev. The two Houses of Parliament with the King and Speaker; the whole within wreath-border. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast and chased; with loop for suspension. By T. Rawlins.8

19

This medal was probably executed by order of the Parliament, the legend being in accordance with their declaration of 19th May, 1642.

90. Another. Obv. Ship in full sail l., with flags of England. Rev. The two Houses of Parliament with the King and Speaker. PRO RELIGIONE GREGE ET REGE: the whole within wreath-border. Silver. Size 2·2. Struck. Dutch.

This medal appears to have been struck upon a piece of cast metal and from copper dies, which are known to have existed and are considered to be the matrices of a seal.

91. Battle of Edgehill? 1642. Obv. Half-length figure of King l., wearing robes of the order of the Garter, &c. CAR. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c.; engraved. Rev. King on horseback r.; above, genius with palm and wreath, &c.; blundered inscr. of Garter, engraved. Silver. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased; with loop for suspension.

Probably executed by T. Rawlins after the battle of Edgehill, to which the palm and wreath allude.

92. Outbreak of Civil War and surrender of Bristol? 1643. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., wearing armour, &c. CAROLVS D. G. ANG. &c. R. Rev. Sword and olive-branch crossed, between C.R. crowned. IN VTRVMQVE PARATVS. 1643. Silver. Size 1·15. Struck. By T. Rawlins.

This medalet may have been struck upon the surrender of Bristol to the forces of Prince Rupert in 1643.

93. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 1642. Obv. Half-length figure towards l., in armour holding sword; above SX. Outer legend. Should hear both houses of parliamant for true Religion and subiects fredom stand. Inner legend. Pro Religione Lege Rege et Parliamento: legends engraved. Rev. The two Houses of Parliament with King and Speaker: wreath-border. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·8. Cast and chased; with loop for suspension. Military reward.

The reverse type may refer to the declaration of Essex, 20 in which he promised to maintain the Protestant religion, the security of the King's person, and the first privileges of Parliament and the liberty and property of the subject. Essex, born in 1582, was appointed general of the parliamentary army upon the breaking out of the Civil War in 1642. He died in 1646.

94. Another. Battle of Edgehill? 1642. Obv. The Earl of Essex on horse galloping r.; battle in the distance, &c. ROBERTVS COMES ESSEX. Rev. Shield, coronet, arms of Essex; beneath, motto, BASIS VIRTVTVM CONSTANTIA; wreath-border; legends engraved. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast and chased; has had ring for suspension.

The battle represented on the obverse may be that of Edgehill, when victory was claimed by both sides.

95. Another. Death of Essex, 1646. Obv. Bust, facing, in armour, &c. ROBERTVS COMES ESSEXIÆ, &c. PRO REGE ET PARLIAMENTO GENERALIS. Rev. Shield and coronet, arms of Essex; beneath, skull and crossbones. OBIIT DECIMO QVARTO DIE SEPTEMBRIS ANNO DIN (sic) 1646; legends engraved. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension.

A memorial of the Earl of Essex upon his death.

96. Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax, 1643. Obv. Bust, three quarters r., in armour. Rev. Shield, arms of Fairfax between palm and laurel branches: wreath-border. Silver. Oval. Size 1·75. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. Military reward.

Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax, at the outbreak of the civil war, was appointed commander-in-chief of the parliamentary forces of the North. He gained the battle of Marston Moor in 1644. Died 1648.

97. Another, 1643. Obv. Bust, facing, wearing armour and scarf. Rev. Shield, arms of Fairfax. Silver. Oval. Size 1·5. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. Military reward.

98. Lord Kimbolton, aft. Earl of Manchester, 1643. Obv. Half-length figure, three quarters l., in armour, Pro Religione Lege Rege et Parliamento; engraved. Rev. The two Houses of Parliament, with King and Speaker; wreath-border. Silver. Oval. Size 1·7. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. Military reward.

Edward Montague, Lord Mandeville, was the eldest son of the first Earl of Manchester, and was raised to the peerage in the lifetime of his father under the title of 21 Lord Kimbolton. He served in the parliamentary army, and held a command at Edgehill. In 1643 he received the command of the forces maintained by the seven associated counties of Essex, &c., and was present at the battle of Marston Moor. It was probably about that time that this medal was struck. He took a leading part in bringing about the Restoration, and was Lord Chamberlain to Charles II. Died in 1671.

99. John Hampden. Obv. Bust, three quarters r., wearing armour. Rev. An axe. Inimica Tyrannis. Gold. Size .8. An engraved plate of good work probably of the 18th century.

John Hampden, statesman and parliamentary leader, was killed at Chalgrove, 18th June, 1643.

100. Archbishop Laud, 1645. Obv. Bust r., wearing academical robes, biretta, &c. Reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·45. Cast and chased.

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, born in 1573, obtained in 1621 the see of St. David's, in 1625 was translated to Bath and Wells, in 1628 to London, and in 1633 to the see of Canterbury. Beheaded 10th Jan. 1645.

101–102. Another. Obv. Bust r., similar to previous medal. GVIL. LAVD ARCHIEPISC. CANTVAR. X. IAN. 1644. Rotier f. Rev. Infant angel carrying mitre and crozier of Laud towards the skies, followed by two others bearing the crown, sceptre, and orb of Charles; below, view of London. SANCTI CAROLI PRÆCVRSOR. Gold and silver. 2·25. Struck.

This medal was executed by John Roettier soon after the Restoration, circ. 1600.

103. Sir William Parkhurst, 1644. Within ornamented oval frame, half-length figure, facing, wearing cloak, &c., and holding medal of Charles I. GVILIEL. PARKHVRST EQV. AVRA. CVSTOS CAMB. ET MONET. TOT. ANGL. 1623; beneath, T. Rawlins Sculps. OXON. 1644. Silver. Size 3. Cast; a thin plate. By T. Rawlins.

Sir William Parkhurst, Warden of the Mint under James I. and Charles I., whom he accompanied to Oxford at the outbreak of the Civil War. He was reinstated in his office by Charles II., and died about 1671.

104. Sir William Waller, 1643. Obv. Bust three quarters r., wearing armour, &c. Inner legend. The valiant commander Sir William Waller. Outer legend. Should hear both houses of parliamant for true Religion and subiects fredom stand: legends 22 engraved. Rev. The two Houses of Parliament with King and Speaker. Silver. Oval. Size 1·35. Cast and chased. Military reward.

Sir William Waller, parliamentary general, born in 1597, knighted in 1622, was second in command under the Earl of Essex; but was removed by the Self-denying Ordinance, and becoming an object of suspicion, he was twice imprisoned. He afterwards assisted at the Restoration, and died in 1668.

105. Sir Richard Brown, 1644. Obv. Bust, three quarters l., in armour, &c. NON VIR SED VIRTVS. Rev. Shield, arms of Sir R. Brown. FOR KING AND PARLIAMENT. 1644; wreath-border. Silver. Oval. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. Military reward.

Sir Richard Brown, parliamentary general, afterwards attached himself to the royal cause and at the Restoration was created a baronet and elected Lord Mayor of London.

106–107. Sir Thomas Fairfax, 1645. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour, &c. THO. FAIRFAX MILES MILIT. PARL. DVX GEN. Rev. MERVISTI. POST HAC MELIORA. 1645. Silver-gilt and silver. Oval. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. Military reward. By T. Simon.9

Sir Thomas (Lord) Fairfax, parliamentary general, commanded at Marston Moor, was appointed general in chief of the parliamentary army to succeed Essex, 1645, and was victorious at Naseby, Colchester, &c. He resigned his post in 1650, and after assisting in bringing about the Restoration, died in 1671. 23

108. Prince Rupert, 1645. Obv. Bust, three quarters l., wearing armour, &c., and holding Marshal's baton. Rev. Armorial bearings of the Prince on three shields, with supporters, crest, &c.: above, R. P. Silver. Oval. Size 1·45. Cast and chased. Military reward.

Prince Rupert, son of Frederick, Elector Palatine, and Elizabeth, dau. of James I., born 1619, commanded the cavalry of Charles I. during the Civil War till the surrender of Bristol in 1645. After the Restoration he commanded in the English fleet in the war against the Dutch. Died in 1682.

109. Sir Robert Heath, 1645. Obv. Bust l., wearing cap, robes of office, &c. EFFIG. R. HEATH. &c. ÆTAT. SVÆ 71. 1645. R. Rev. Shield, arms of Heath, between two laurel-branches; engraved. Silver. Oval. Size 1·5. Cast and chased. By T. Rawlins.

Sir Robert Heath, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, dismissed by the Parliament in 1645, died in 1649.

110. Baron de Reede, 1645. Obv. Bust l., wearing cap, doublet, &c. Rev. 1645. Io. de Reede D. de Renswovde, &c. ÆTAT 52. Silver. Oval. Size 1·35. Cast and chased. By T. Simon.

John de Reede, Lord of Renswode, Ambassador Extraordinary of the United Provinces to the Court of Charles I., by whom he was created Baron de Reede.

111. Sir John Hotham, 1645. Obv. Bust r., in armour; behind, skull, crowned. MORS MIHI VITA. Rev. Shield, arms of Hotham impaling Anlaby. Silver. Size 1·25. Cast and chased.

Sir John Hotham, Parliamentary-general, was the Governor of Hull, who closed the gates of that city against Charles I. Being suspected of treason, he was executed together with his son on Tower Hill, 2nd June, 1645.

112. Simon Beal, 1645. Half-length figure, three quarters r., in doublet and scarf, with trumpet in r. hand, &c. SIMON BEAL ÆT. SVE 28. A. 1645; wreath-border. Silver. Size 2·4. Embossed plate in high relief, chased.

Simon Beal is said to have been Sergeant-Trumpeter to the King. This medal has been attributed to T. Rawlins.

113. Earl of Loudon, 1645. Obv. Bust l., wearing cap, doublet, &c.; on arm, A.S. Rev. IOHAN. COM. LOVDOVN SVMMVS SCOTIÆ CANCELLARIVS. 1645. Silver. Size 1·45. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.10

24

Sir John Campbell, born 1598, elected Earl of Loudon 1633, was appointed High Chancellor of Scotland in 1641, and in 1649 President of the Session which ordered the proclamation of Charles II. Being deprived of his office he was specially exempted from the indemnity granted by Cromwell to the people of Scotland. Died 1663.

114. William Pope, 1645. Obv. Bust r., wearing armour and scarf; on arm, A.S. Rev. 1645. GVLIELMVS POPE ARMIG. ÆTATIS 21. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

William Pope, a royalist and grandson of Sir William Pope, first Baron of Belturbet and Earl of Downe, died before 1660 without issue.

115. Lord Inchiquin, 1646. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour and scarf; on arm, A.S. Rev. 1646. HON. D. MOR. BAR. D'INCHIQVIN D. PRÆSES PROV. MOMONIÆ ÆT. 30. Silver-gilt. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Lord Murrough, Baron Inchiquin, created Earl of Inchiquin 1654, commanded in Munster, of which province he was appointed Lord President. He was at first a parliamentarian, but afterwards joined the royalist party. Died 1674.

116. Albert Joachim, 1646. Obv. Bust l., wearing official robes, &c.; on arm, A.S. Rev. 1646. ALB. IOACHIMI EQ. FÆDERAT. BELG. &c. ÆT. 86. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Albert Joachim was Ambassador Extraordinary of the United Provinces to congratulate Charles I. upon his marriage. He remained in England as Ambassador in ordinary. 25

117. Sidney Poyntz, 1646. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour and scarf; on arm, A. S. Rev. 1646. SIDEN. POINTZ 10000 EQVIT. ET PED. ASSOCIAT. SEPTENT. DVX SVM. EBOR. GVBER. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Sidney Poyntz, parliamentary general, defeated the King's forces at Rowton Heath near Chester, commanded with Rossiter in the North, and was Governor of York.

118. Earl of Dunfermline, 1646. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour and scarf; on arm, A.S. Rev. CAR. SETONIVS FERMELINODVNI COM. 1646. Lead. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Charles Seton, second Earl of Dunfermline, was frequently employed in negotiations between the King and the Parliament of Scotland. After the Restoration he was appointed extraordinary Lord of the Session and Keeper of the Privy Seal. Died in 1673.

119. Earl of Lauderdale, 1646. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour, &c. IO. METALLANVS LAVDERIÆ CO.; on arm, A.S. Rev. Crest and motto of Lauderdale, lion sejant, holding sword and lis. CONSILIO ET ANIMIS. 1646. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

John Maitland, second Earl of Lauderdale, born 1616, created Duke 1672, was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester: appointed in 1661 Sec. of State and High Commissioner of Scotland: aft. one of the famous Cabal Ministry. Died 1682.

120. General Rossiter, 1646. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour. Reverse plain. Gold. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast and chased. By A. ? Simon.

Edward Rossiter, parliamentary general, commanded in the North with Sidney Poyntz: concurred with Monk and Fairfax in the Restoration, and was knighted.

121. Robert Kyrle, 1646. Obv. Bust r., in armour, &c. Rev. Shield, arms of Kyrle and Money, and crest of Kyrle, hedgehog. Silver. Oval. Size 1·25. Cast and chased. By A. Simon?

Robert Kyrle of Walford Court, nephew of John Hampden was a distinguished officer under Cromwell and Captain of the Troopers, who plundered Master Swift's house at Goodrich. Died 1669. 26

122. Martinay, 1647. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour: on arm, A.S. Rev. IE NE VIS QV'A REGRET. 1647. Lead. Size 1·5. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

In the Med. Hist., p. 74, we find that Martinay was a French gentleman, who had taken refuge in England.

123. Uncertain Portrait. Bust r., wearing doublet. No reverse. Size 1·45. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Perhaps a portrait of Algernon Sidney.

124. Thomas Harper, 1647. Bust l., wearing cloak, &c. VERA EFF. T. HARPER D. ALVETON LODGE IN C. STAF. 1647; on arm, T.R. Gold. Oval. Size 1·4. Struck on a thin gold plate. By T. Rawlins.

During the civil war a parliamentary garrison was stationed at Alveton, perhaps in Harper's own house, who appears to have been a royalist, as this medal is by the royalist artist, Rawlins.

125. Memorial badge of Charles I., 1649. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing armour, &c. CAROLVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c.; engraved. Rev. Shield, royal arms within Garter, crowned; engraved. Silver. Oval. Size 2·3. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

This and the following medals (Nos. 126–134) are badges evidently worn by the friends and partisans of Charles I., openly, or in secret.

126. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., wearing decorated armour, &c. CAROLVS D.G. MAG. BR. &c. Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size 1·5. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension.

This medal is probably by T. Rawlins.

127. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., wearing robes and star of the Garter, &c.; in his hand, crown of thorns and scroll inscribed, CHRISTI TRACTO IANII. 30. 1648. CAROLVS PRIMVS MORITVR ET VIVIT. EST NOBILE VICENDI GENVS PATIENTIA; wreath-border. Rev. Rock, buffeted by winds and waves; on scroll, IMMOTA TRIUMPHANS. Silver. Size 1·1. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

The reverse is an imitation of engraving: some specimens are plain. There is a great variety of these badges.

128–129. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing deep lace collar, doublet, &c. CAROLVS D.G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET HIB. RX; engraved. Rev. Bust of Queen l., wearing coronet, low bodice, &c. 27 HENRETTA MARIA D.G. MAG. BRITAN. &c. T. RAWLINS. F. Gold and silver. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

130. Another. Similar: bust of King crowned, wearing robes, collar of the Garter, &c., legend in relief and varied. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

131. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing deep lace collar, &c. CAROLVS D.G. MAG. BRI. FRA. ET HI. REX, engraved. Rev. ORTV MAGNVS CONIVGIO ET PROLE MAIOR VIRTVTE MAXIMVS; engraved; wreath border. Copper-gilt. Oval. Size 2. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

132. Another. Bust of King r., as on preceding: within wreath-border; crown above. Silver. Oval. Size 2. Cast and chased. By T. Rawlins.

On this badge all the plain ground has been removed leaving only the portrait, border, and crown. It was probably an ornament for a book-cover.

133. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., wearing doublet, &c. Rev. Shield, royal arms within the Garter, crowned: engraved. Gold. Oval. Size 1·1. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

134. Another. Obv. Bust of King, three quarters l., crowned, wearing robes and collar of the Garter, &c. Carolus Rex. Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size 2·35. An engraved plate similar to those executed by Simon Passe: but not by that artist, and of later date.

135. Death of Charles I., 1649. Obv. Bust of King l., wearing decorated armour, &c. DIVVS CAROLVS BRT. PIVS; two roses; in field, C. R., beneath which, H. M. engraved (later). Rev. Hammer striking diamond on anvil. INEXPVGNABILIS.

1648: in field, engraved (later) R N Silver. Size 1·65. Cast
W R
I K

and burnished. By T. Rawlins.

This medal is emblematic of the king's fortitude.

136. Another. Obv. Bust of King as on preceding. SVCCESSOR VERVS VTRIVSQVE: two roses. Rev. Salamander amid flames. CONSTANTIA CÆSARIS. IAN. 30. 1648. Silver. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

The Salamander was frequently adopted as an emblem of fortitude and patience under sufferings.

137. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing armour, &c. Inner legend. CAROLVS REX. Outer legend. POPVLE MEVS QVID FECI TIBI. 1649. (Micah vi. 3.) Rev. Head of Medusa, surrounded by legend in three circles, the two outer divided by flaming sword, arms, and thunderbolt. CONCILIABVLVM ANGLIÆ. BLASFEMANT 28 DEVM. NECANT REGEM. SPERNVNT LEGEM. Silver. Size 2·25. Cast and chased. Dutch.

The head of Medusa is emblematic of rebellion, sedition and anarchy.

138. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing armour. CAROL. I. D. G. M. B. &c. N. R. F. Rev. REX PACIFICVS VICTVS VINCEBAT HOSTES VICTOR TRIVMPHAT IN COELIS. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck.

This medal was executed some time after the Restoration by Norbert Roettier, the son of John Roettier.

139. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. CAROL. D. G. M. B. &c. Rev. Hand from cloud holding celestial crown; below, landscape with sheep without shepherd. VIRTVT. EX ME FORTVNAM EX ALIJS Silver. Size 1·35. Struck. By Norbert Roettier.

This medal is not signed; but some specimens bear the artist's signature.

140. Giles Strangeways, 1648. Obv. Bust r., in Roman dress. ÆGIDIVS STRANGWAYS DE MELBVRY IN COM. DORCESTR. ARMIGER. IAN. R. F. Rev. The White Tower of London, with Royal standard; above, sun. DECVSQVE ADVERSA DEDERVNT: in ex., INCARCERATVS SEPT. 1645. LIBERATVS APR. 1648. Silver. Size 2·4. Struck. By John Roettier.

Giles Strangways, born at Melbury 1615, commanded a regiment of horse in the king's service in the West; was afterwards imprisoned in the Tower with his father and heavily fined. At the Restoration he represented Dorsetshire in Parliament, about which time this medal was struck.

COMMONWEALTH. 1649–1660.

141. Cromwell, "Lord General," 1650. Obv. Bust, three-quarters r., wearing armour and cloak. OLI. CROMWEL MILIT. PARL. DVX GEN. Reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By T. Simon.

On the 26th June, 1650, Fairfax having resigned the command of the army, Cromwell, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was appointed Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief of all the forces of Parliament within the Commonwealth of England.

142–143. Cromwell, "Lord Protector," 1653. Obv. Bust l., wearing decorated armour and cloak. OLIVERVS DEI GRA. 29 REIPVB. ANGLIÆ SCO. ET HIB. & PROTECTOR. THO. SIMON. F. Rev. Lion, sejant, laureate, supporting shield of the Protectorate. PAX QVÆRITVR BELLO. Gold and silver. Size 1·5. Struck. By T. Simon.

Cromwell was created Lord Protector on the 16th Dec. 1653. This portrait was copied from a miniature by Cooper now in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire.

144. Elizabeth, wife of Cromwell, 1641. Obv. Bust l., draped, &c. ELIZABETH WIFE OF O. C. L. P. 1641. Rev. ELIZEBETH DAUGHTER OF Sr. JAMES BOUCHER. 1641. Lead. Size 1·45. Cast. Unique.

Elizabeth, dau. of Sir James Boucher of Felstead, Essex, born 1598, mar. 1620, died 1672. This medal is of the time: but the date is an anachronism, as Cromwell was not Lord Protector till 1653.

145. Henry Cromwell, 1654. Obv. Bust, facing, wearing armour, &c.: on arm, A. S. Rev. HEN. CROMWELL GVB. HIB. 1654; wreath-border. Lead. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By A. Simon.

Henry Cromwell, fourth son of the Protector, born 1627, commanded in Ireland 1649; appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland 1654; died 1673.

146. Elizabeth Cromwell, wife of John Claypole, 1658. Obv. Bust r., wearing necklace and slightly draped. Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size 1·3. Cast and chased from a model by A. Simon.

Elizabeth, second dau. of Cromwell, born 1630, mar. John Claypole, died at Hampton Court 6th Aug. 1658; was buried at Westminster Abbey.

147. John Claypole, 1658. Obv. Bust l., wearing doublet. Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size 1·1. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension; from a model by A. Simon.

John Claypole, husband of Elizabeth Cromwell, died 1688.

148. Henry Ireton, 1650. Obv. Head l. QVID TIBI RETRIBVAM. T. S. 1650. Rev. Soldier climbing rock and firing cottage, distant view of battle, &c. IVSTITIA NECESSITASQ. IVBET. Copper. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast and chased; with silver rim and ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Henry Ireton, born 1610, was educated at Oxford, joined the parliamentarians and fought at Naseby, mar. Bridget, dau. of Cromwell, 1646, was appointed deputy of 30 the Protector in Ireland 1650. Died 1651. The reverse is intended as an excuse for his conduct in Ireland.

149–150. Battle of Dunbar, 1650. Obv. Bust of Cromwell l., wearing armour and scarf; in the distance, battle. THE LORD OF HOSTS. WORD AT DVNBAR SEPTEM. Y. 3. 1650; on arm, THO. SIMON FE. Rev. Parliament assembled in one house with Speaker. Silver and copper. Oval. Size 1·3. Struck. By T. Simon.

Executed by order of Parliament for distribution amongst the officers and soldiers engaged in the battle of Dunbar. The dies of this medal were discovered at Hursly, Hants, the seat of Sir Thomas Heathcote, but once the residence of Richard Cromwell.

151. Another. Similar: on arm, T. SIMON F., and ring for suspension. Gold. Oval. Size .95. By T. Simon.

152. Another. Similar: with plain reverse and no ring. Silver. Oval. Size .95. Struck. By T. Simon.

153. Naval Reward. Service against Six Ships, 1650. Obv. Anchor, from which are suspended two shields, arms of England and Ireland, the whole encircled by cable. MERUISTI. Rev. Ship in close action with two others, four more in the distance. SERVICE DON AGAINST SIX SHIPS JVLY Y. XXXI. & AVGUST Y. I. 1650. Silver. Oval. Size 1·6. Struck.

Captain Wyard, in a Ship of twenty-two guns, when convoying four merchant vessels from Hull to Amsterdam, was attacked by six Irish frigates, which after a long conflict he beat off. This medal was struck for distribution amongst Captain Wyard and his crew.

Although this medal has the same obverse type as the following one, it seems somewhat doubtful whether it was executed by T. Simon.

154. Naval Reward, 1650. Obv. Similar to preceding; on the beam of the anchor, T.S. Rev. Parliament assembled in one house with Speaker. Gold. Oval. Size .95. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Executed in 1650 by order of Parliament, and bestowed for naval service.

155. Naval Reward, 1653. Blake's victories over the Dutch. Obv. Anchor, from which are suspended three shields, arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; the whole encircled by cable. Rev. Naval engagement; the stern of one vessel inscribed, 31 SIMON; on the prow of another, T.S.; broad border of trophies from the Dutch. Lead. Oval. Size 2·2. Struck. By T. Simon.

Four of these medals were ordered by the Parliament to be struck in commemoration of naval victories over the Dutch. Two with chains of £300 value each were presented to Blake and Monk; two with chains of £100 value each, to Admirals Penn and Lawson. Of these medals three are extant. In 1651, when Scotland was incorporated with the Commonwealth, a third shield was introduced, in the arms of Great Britain. The shield of Scotland is not on the naval reward of 1650. (See No. 153.)

156. Another. Similar: with border of laurel leaves. Gold. Oval. Size 2. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Four of these medals were struck for presentation with chains of the value of £40 each to the four flag officers. Of these one is in the possession of C. D. Holworthy, who inherited it from his maternal ancestor, Capt. Haddock.

157. Another. Similar: without border. Gold. Size 1·6. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

The medals of the class were probably distributed amongst the Captains of the vessels engaged.

158. Saving the Triumph, 1653. Same medal with inscription engraved on the reverse, FOR EMINENT SERVICE IN SAVING Y TRIVMPH FIERED IN FIGHT WH. Y. DVCH IN IVLY 1653. Gold. Oval. Size 1·6. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

The Triumph was Blake's flag-ship, and in the battle of 31st July, 1653, in the absence of her commander, she took fire and was abandoned by the greater part of the crew. Those who remained, redoubling their efforts, succeeded in saving her, and were rewarded with the above medal bearing a special inscription.

159. Admiral Blake, 1653. Obv. Bust, three quarters r., wearing armour, ruff, &c. ROB?. BLAKE. Born 1598. Died 1657. He fought at once with Ships & Castles. He dared the Fury of all the Elements, & left an Example to Posterity which is incredible; to be imitated. Rev. Naval engagement with broad trophy border as No. 155. Silver. Oval. Size 2·3. Engraved and struck. By T. Simon.

Robert Blake, born 1598, commanded in the West for Parliament during the Civil War, entered the Naval 32 Service in 1649 and obtained several victories over the Dutch during the years 1652–1654. Died 1657. The obverse of this medal is engraved, and the reverse is struck, each on a thin plate. The portrait is not as it professes to be of Blake, but is a coarse copy of one of Maurice, Prince of Orange.

160. Peace with Holland, 1654. Obv. Britain and Holland armed, holding spears, each surmounted with cap of Liberty, and bearing national flag, Peace uniting spears with olive-wreath. HIER BINT DE HEIL'GE VREEDEN BRIT. EN BATAVIER, &c. Rev. Ship in full sail r., driven by winds; above, Fame; beneath, Tritons; AO 1654. WAAROM ZEILT T. VREDESCHIP OPT. SILVER IN DE ZEE, &c. Silver-gilt. Size 3·15. Repoussé and chased.

Holland, defeated in a series of naval actions, sued for peace and submitted to terms favourable to England. This medal is Dutch, and is composed of two plates united by rim. It was probably executed by Pieter van Abeele, (see note, p. 37).

161. Another, 1654. Obv. Cromwell delivering treaty of Peace to the representative of the United Provinces. VREDE GESLOTEN TUSSCHEN DEN HEER HEERE PROTECTEVR CROMWEL, &c. IN DEN IARE 1654. Rev. Shield, arms and crest of the town of Sluys. PIETER LIPS ENDE FERDINANDE DE BACKERE BVRGEMEESTERS DER STADT SLVYS ANNO 1654. Silver. Size 3·4. Engraved.

This medal was probably executed by order of the Burgomasters of Sluys mentioned in the reverse inscription.

162. Another, 1654. Obv. Britannia with harp on her knees, and Holland with Belgic lion at her feet, seated, facing, holding between them cap of Liberty: beneath, CONCL. XV/XXV D. APRIL Ao. MDCLIV. MENTIBUS UNITIS PRISCUS PROCUL ABSIT AMAROR, &c. Rev. A British and a Dutch ship sailing together on calm sea; on stern of each, S.D. LUXURIAT GEMINO NEXU TRANQVILLA SALO RES, &c. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By Sebastian Dadler.

This medal, besides commemorating the peace, refers also to the treaty of commerce and alliance between England and Holland.

163. Another, 1654. Obv. Neptune in sea-chariot, facing; on his knees two shields, arms of England with Ireland and Holland; car attended by two Tritons; behind, sun, whose rays fill field. AMANTIVM IRA AMICITIÆ REDINTEGRATIO EST; on car and beneath, Jerian Pool fecit Amsterdami. Rev. Long inscription 33 in Dutch relating to the Treaty between the Lord Protector and the States General concluded 15th April, ratified 2nd May, and proclaimed 27th May, 1654. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By Jerian Pool.11

164–165. Death of Cromwell, 1658. Obv. Bust l., laureate, in armour. OLIVAR. D. G. RP. ANG. SCO. HIB. &c. PROTECTOR; on arm, T. SIMON. Rev. Landscape, with young olive tree growing up at side of the stump of an old one; shepherds tending their flocks. NON DEFITIENT OLIVA. SEP. 3. 1658. Gold and copper. Oval. Size .85. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Oliver Cromwell, born 2nd April, 1599, commanded for Parliament in the Civil War, appointed Lord-Lieutenant and Commander-in-Chief in Ireland 1649, Lord-General 1650, and Lord Protector 1653, died Sept. 3rd, 1658. The reverse of this medal refers to the succession of the Protectorate passing to Richard Cromwell.

166–167. Another. Obv. Bust l., laureate, in armour. OLIVAR. D. G. RP. ANG. SCO. HIBERNIÆ PROTECTOR. Rev. Landscape with young olive tree and shepherd with sheep; in the distance, trees and buildings. NON DEFITIENT OLIVA. SEP. 3. 1658. Gold and silver. Size 1·85. Struck.

This and the next medal of smaller size were struck in Holland to be supplied to those who were unable to procure the one executed by T. Simon.

168. Another. Obv. Bust l., laureate, mantle over shoulders. OLIVAR. D. G. RP. ANG. SCO. HIB. PRO. Rev. Similar to preceding. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck. Dutch.

169. Trial of John Lilburne, 1649. Obv. Bust l., with high collar, &c. Legend in three concentric circles, IOHN LILBORNE SAVED BY THE POWER OF THE LORD AND THE INTEGRITY OF HIS IVRY WHO ARE IVGES OF LAW AS WEL AS FACT. OCT. 26. 1649. Rev. Rose in centre of four concentric circles inscribed with the names of the twelve jurymen and date of trial as above. Silver. Size 1·3. Struck.

John Lilburn, an ardent agitator born 1618, was several times prosecuted and imprisoned for seditious libels, first against Charles I., and afterwards against Cromwell. This 34 medal was struck upon his acquittal in 1649, when he was accused of high treason for libelling Cromwell. He died 1657.

170. General Lambert, 1653. Head l., bare; behind, I. LAMBERT. Lead. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast. This medalet is made after the manner of an antique gem.

John Lambert, parliamentary general and statesman, born 1619, distinguished himself at Marston Moor and Naseby; was the leader of the "Fifty monarchy men," and opposed the Restoration; aft. banished to Guernsey, where he died 1692.

171. Sir Robert Bolles, 1655. Obv. Bust l., wearing armour and scarf; on arm, T. RAWLINS F., 1655. ROB. BOLLES DE SCAMPTON IN COM. LINCOL. BARONET. No reverse. Wreath-border. Lead. Size 1·75. Cast and partly chased. By T. Rawlins.

Sir Robert Bolles, born 1619, was one of the Grand Jury for the trial of the Regicides, and represented Lincoln in Parliament; mar. 1637 the dau. of Sir Edward Hussey, of Hannington, Linc.; died 1663.

172–172. Sir Henry B. Slingesby, 1658. Obv. Half-length figure, facing, in armour. Inner legend. AN EARNEST PENNY FOR MY CHILDREN. THO. H. B. SLINGESBY OXON. 1644. Outer legend. EX RESIDVIS NVMMI SVB HASTA PIMMIANA LEGE PRÆDATI IVXTA DAVENTRIAM. Rev. Shield, arms and crest of Slingesby impaling Belasyse. Beheaded June ye 8: by O: C: 1657. Engraved. Silver-gilt; and silver, with 1658 correct date. Oval. Size 1·85. Cast; with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

Sir Henry Slingesby, Bart., commanded in the North for the King, and after the surrender of York made his way to Oxford with a portion of his army; but being attacked on the road near Daventry by a company of rebel horse, he lost all that he had. Shortly afterwards, being made prisoner he was confined at Hull, and being brought up to London was executed on Tower Hill 8th June, 1658. At Oxford he resided with Sir William Parkhurst, Master of the Mint, which may account for the execution of this medal intended as an "earnest penny" for his three children.

173. Henry Scobell, 1649. Obv. Bust l., in doublet. Rev. Hen. Scobell, engraved. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. By T. Simon.

Henry Scobell appointed Clerk of Parliament in 1649, 35 again in 1653, and for the third time in 1654: and Clerk of the Council 1656.

174. John Thurloe, 1653. Obv. Bust r., wearing cap and doublet; on arm, T. S. Rev. Double florid monogram of J.T.: beneath, Secr. Thurloe. Gold. Size 1·3. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

John Thurloe, born 1616, filled numerous offices of State; appointed Secretary of the Council 1652, and Secretary to Cromwell 1653; suspected of treason, was imprisoned, but released at the Restoration. Died 1668.

175. Sir James Harrington, 1653. Obv. Bust l., in armour and cloak; on arm, T.S. Rev. Inscription with name and offices of Harrington Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. By T. Simon.

The Reverse inscription states that Sir James Harrington of Sweakley was general of the forces of London and Westminster at the battle of Newbury 1644, and member of Parliament for Rutlandshire, and one of the Council of State, 1653. Harrington, born in 1609, was a strong supporter of the Parliament, by which he was much employed; was pardoned at the Restoration and retired into private life.

176. Bulstrode Whitelock, 1653. Obv. Bust l., in robes of office; on arm, T.S. Rev. Inscription in Latin with name and offices of Whitelock. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. By T. Simon.

The Reverse inscription relates that in 1653 Bulstrode Whitelock was keeper of the Great Seal of England, Constable of Windsor Castle, and High Steward of Oxford. He filled many other offices during the protectorate, and was a commissioner of the Great Seal in 1659. Died 1676.

177. Unknown portrait, 1653. Obv. Bust l., in cap, doublet, and deep collar; on arm, T.S. Reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·35. Cast and chased. Unique. By Thomas Simon.

178. Solicitor General Coke. Obv. Bust of Coke l., in doublet with double row of buttons, &c.; wreath-border. Rev. Sol. Gen. J. Cooke. Engraved. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased.

J. Coke, distinguished lawyer, was made Solicitor-General by the High Court of Justice to conduct the trial of the King; afterwards appointed a judge in Ireland, executed as a Regicide in 1660. 36

CHARLES II. 1649–1684.

179. Badge, 1649. Obv. Jugate busts of Charles I. and Charles Prince of Wales r., in armour, &c.; the King crowned. CAR. REX M.B.F. ET H. CAR. PRINCEPS. T.R. (in monogram). Rev. Same as obverse. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

Probably worn by the partisans of the King and Prince. Extremely rough work.

180. Another. Obv. Bust of Prince Charles I., in decorated armour, &c. Rev. Royal shield within Garter; above, crown. Silver. Oval. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension.

181. Coronation at Scone, 1651. Obv. Bust of King r., crowned, in collar and robes of the Garter. CAROLVS 2. D. G. SCO. ANG. FRA. & HI. REX FI. DE. cor. 1. ia. scon. 1651. Rev. Lion rampant gardant holding thistle. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSET. Gold. Size 1·2. Cast and chased.

Charles II. was crowned by the Scots at Scone 1 Jan. 1651.

182. Restoration expected, 1660. Obv. Bust of King r., hair long, wearing armour, &c. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAGNÆ BRIT. &c. Rev. Sun rising out of sea: above, on scroll, ORIAR. Lead. Size 1·3. Struck. By T. Simon.

This medal expresses the hopes and expectations of the Royalists that the Sun of the Stuarts would again rise.

183. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Three crowns on branches of leafless oak: above, sun dispersing clouds. TANDEM REVIRESCET. Silver. Size 1·35. Struck: hollow. By T. Simon.

184. Badge, 1660. Obv. Similar. CAROLVS SECVNDVS; engraved. Rev. Similar to preceding, but entirely engraved. Silver. Oval. Size 1·4. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

A cheap badge probably worn by the Royalists at the Restoration.

185. Another. Similar: bust of King, crowned. Silver. Oval. Size 1·35. Cast and chased.

186. Another. Obv. Similar to No. 184. Rev. Royal shield within Garter; above, crown between C.R. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size ·95. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

The reverse is in imitation of engraving.

187. Another. Similar: bust of King, crowned. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size ·95. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

37

188. Another. Obv. Bust of King, three quarters l., head bare, wearing medal, &c. CAROLVS SECVNDVS; engraved. Rev. Similar to No. 186. Silver. Oval. Size .95. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

189. Charles I. and II., 1660. Obv. Bust of Charles I., three quarters r., in doublet and lace collar. CAROLVS D. I. Rev. Bust of Charles II. facing, in doublet and wearing medal, &c. CAROLVS D. II.; field on both sides damasked with roses. Silver. Size 2·7. Repoussé and chased. By Pieter van Abeele.12

This medal consists of two plates united by rim, and was executed by Peter van Abeele, during the residence of Charles in Holland.

190. Charles II. and William III. of Orange, 1660? Obv. Bust of King, three quarters r., hair long, in armour, &c., and wearing George. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAGNÆ BRIT. &c. Rev. William III. of Orange, on horseback r.; distant view of river and city. WILHELMVS III. D. G. PRINC. AVRAICÆ COM. NASS. EC. Silver. Size 2·7. Repoussé and chased. By Pieter van Abeele.

In the same style as the previous medal. From the youthful appearance of William this medal could not have been executed after 1660. It was probably issued, like the following one, upon the King's leaving Holland.

191. Reward for services, 1660. Obv. Bust of King, facing r., wearing armour, &c. CAROLUS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. ET HIB. REX. Rev. Three crowns within branches of laurel and palm. PROPTER STRENVITATEM ET FIDELITATEM REBVS IN ADVERSIS; chain-border. Gold. Size 2·9. Cast and chased; has had ring for suspension. Dutch.

This medal is unique, and was evidently given by Charles to some faithful adherent.

192. Embarkation at Scheveningen, 1660. Obv. Same as No. 190. Rev. Fleet under sail: above, Fame with trumpet and scroll inscribed, SOLI DEO GLORIA; beneath, inscription in Dutch giving date of departure from Scheveningen, 2nd June 1660, and 38 around, IN NOMINE MEO EXALTABITUR CORNU EIUS. PSAL. 89; on edge, PA. F. Silver. Size 2·75. Repoussé and chased. By Pieter van Abeele, whose monogram is on the edge.

Of the same fabric as No. 190. Charles sailed from Scheveningen for England 2nd June 1660 (N. S.), with his court, on board the Naseby, the name of which ship was then changed to that of the Royal Charles.

193. Landing at Dover, 1660. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing armour, &c., within branches of laurel; around, legend with date of arrival in London, "1660 DIE 29 MAII." Outer legend. CAROLUS II. D. G. MAGN. BRITANN. &c.: I.R. (Monogram.) Rev. Ship approaching shore, on which England, Scotland and Ireland, personified, with three crowns, sceptre, and sword, await its arrival: above ship, star and eye of Providence, in the distance, Dover Castle. SI DEUS EST CUSTOS QUIS MEUS HOSTIS ERIT. Silver. Size 2·25. Struck. By John Roettier.13 It may be considered the first of the large series of medals executed by him.

The King landed at Dover on the 26th of May 1660 (O. S.) and on the 29th following made his public entry into London. 39

194. Restoration, 1660. "Gigantomachia." Obv. Bust of King l., wearing robes and collar of the Garter. CAROLVS II. DEI GRATIA MAG. BR. &c. Rev. Jupiter, in clouds, carried by eagle, destroying with thunderbolt prostrate giants: G. Bower F.; ornamented border. Silver. Size 2·5. Struck. By G. Bower.14

Charles is here represented as Jupiter demolishing his foes, a probable allusion to the execution of the Regicides.

195. Another "Felicitas Britanniæ," 1660. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing armour and cloak. CAROLVS SECVNDUS D. G., MAG. BRIT. &c. Rev. Peace laureate, with scales and fasces, and accompanied by Minerva and Hercules presenting olive-branch to Britannia seated on sea-shore; behind, Fame: above, Genius with palm. FELICITAS BRITANNIÆ. 29 MAII. 1660; incuse. Silver. Size 3·3. Struck. By John Roettier.

The intention of the medallist is to show that the Restoration was effected under Providence by wisdom and fortitude, and that it produced to Britain justice, plenty and peace. (See also No. 197.)

196. Another. Obv. Head of King r., laureate. CAROLVS SECVNDVS DEI GRATIA MAG. BRI. &c. Rev. Britannia holding spear and shield, seated on sea-shore, and contemplating her navies. FAVENTE DEO; in ex., BRITANNIA; on edge, CAROLVS SECVNDVS PACIS ET IMPERII RESTITVTOR AVGVSTVS. Gold. Size 2·2. Struck. By John Roettier.

This and the next medal are without date. They appear, however, to commemorate the Restoration, but were not executed till several years afterwards. It is generally supposed that they were struck at the conclusion of the treaty of Breda, 31st July, 1667; but that is not possible, for Pepys in his diary under date 26th Feb. 1667, in speaking of this medal, says: "At my goldsmith's did observe the King's new medal where in little there is Mrs. Stewart's face as well done as ever I saw any thing in my whole life, I think: and a pretty thing it is that he should choose her face to represent Brittannia by." Mrs. Stuart, afterwards Duchess of Richmond, was one of the beauties at the court of Charles II. (See No. 245.) 40

197. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing armour and cloak. AVGVSTISS. CAROLO SECVNDO P. P. I. R. (monogram). Rev. Hercules, Minerva, Peace, and Mercury (with features of the King) assembled around altar, behind which stands Prudence, leaning on shield with figure of Britannia, &c.: Plenty reposes in the foreground. NVLLVM NVMEN ABEST. (Juv. Sat. x. 365.) BRITANNIÆ. Gold. Size 2·4. Struck. By John Roettier.

For explanation of reverse see note to No. 195. The shield held by Prudence being ornamented with a very rough copy of the reverse type of the previous medal, it may be therefore concluded that this medal was executed at the same time or shortly after that one.

198–199. Coronation, 1661. Obv. Bust of King r., crowned, wearing robes and collar of Garter. CAROLVS II. D. G. ANG. SCO. &c. on shoulder, T. S. Rev. King seated l., holding sceptre, crowned by Peace. EVERSO MISSVS SVCCVRRERE SECLO. XXIII. APR. 1661. Gold and silver. Size 1·1. Struck. By T. Simon.

This medal was made for distribution among those attending at the coronation.

200–201. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., laureate, wearing robes and collar of Garter. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. Rev. Oak-tree in full leaf, with three crowns among the branches; above, sun. IAM FLORESCIT. 23 APR. 1661. Gold and silver. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

This medal is by T. Simon, and must have been hastily produced. It was probably issued for distribution to the King's servants, as there is an item in one of Simon's accounts for two in gold supplied to the King's cooks. As No. 182 expressed an expectation that the royal oak would revive, so this declares that it has.

202. Marriage, 1662. Obv. Bust of Catherine of Braganza l., hair drawn back, and wearing coronet, &c. INFANTA DONA CATHERINA; engraved. Rev. Two orange trees, their stems intertwined. Silver. Oval. Size 1. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

As Catharine here wears the Portuguese dress, which before her marriage she changed for that of the English Court, this badge must have been produced soon after her arrival in England.

203. Another. Obv. Busts of King and Queen facing each other; the King laureate; the Queen wearing coronet. CAROLVS II. ET CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. G. B. Rev. Fame with trumpet and olive-branch. QVANTVM SAT ERIT 41 HIS DICERE DIGNVM. ANO 1662. G. B. Silver-gilt. Size 2·05. Struck. By G. Bower.

Struck on the marriage of Charles with Catharine of Braganza, dau. of John IV., King of Portugal, 29th May, 1662.

204. Another. Obv. Busts of King and Queen jugate r.; Queen slightly draped. CAROLVS II. ET CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. Rev. Jupiter with eagle, and Venus, behind whom Cupid; all in clouds. MAIESTAS ET AMOR. Silver. Size 1. Struck. By G. Bower.

205. Marriage Badge, 1662. Obv. Bust of King r., crowned, in armour, cloak, &c. CAROLVS II. D. G., MAG. BRIT. &c. Rev. Bust of Queen l., draped, wearing coronet, &c. CATHARINA D. G., MAG. BRIT. &c. Silver. Oval. Size 1·7. Struck. By G. Bower.

206. Charles II. and Catharine, 1662, "The Golden Medal." Obv. Bust of King r., laureate, in armour and cloak. CAROLVS II. DEI G. MAG. BRI. &c. Rev. Bust of Queen r., draped, hair ornamented with pearls. CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Silver. Size 1·65. Struck.

This fine medal was executed by J. Roettier, and is probably the "Golden Medal" commemorated by the poet Waller.

Our guard upon the royal side

On the reverse, our beauty's pride!

Here we discern the frown and smile

The force and glory of our isle.

207. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laureate, in armour and cloak. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. G. B. Rev. Bust of Queen r., draped, wearing coronet. CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. Silver. Size 2·2. Struck. By G. Bower.

208. Cession of Dunkirk, 1662. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS XIIII. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. J. MAVGER F. Rev. Female figure (Dunkirk) kneeling and presenting keys of the city to Louis in Roman military dress; behind, galley and shield, arms of Dunkirk, &c. DUNKERCA ACQUISITA. XXVII. OCTOBRIS. MDCLXII. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By J. Mauger.

Dunkirk was sold by Charles II. to Louis XIV. for the sum of four millions of livres. This is one of a large series of historical medals of the French King.

209–210. Naval Reward, 1665. Obv. Bust of King r., laureate, in mantle. CAROLVS SECVNDVS D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Rev. King in Roman military dress viewing naval action from shore. PRO TALIBVS AVSIS. Gold and silver. Size 2·4. Struck. By J. Roettier.

This medal was specially struck to commemorate the 42 naval victory over the Dutch, 3rd June 1665, for presentation to the officers engaged: but bearing no date it was used for a reward for other victories during the war of 1665–1667.

211. James, Duke of York. (Victory over the Dutch, 3rd June 1665.) Obv. Bust of the Duke of York r., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS DVX EBOR. ET ALBAN. DOM. MAGN. ADMIRALLVS ANGLIÆ, &c. J. Roetti. F. Rev. Naval engagement, English High Admiral's ship in foreground. NEC MINOR IN TERRIS. 3. IVNII. 1665. Silver. Size 3. Struck. By J. Roettier.

James, Duke of York, encountered the Dutch fleet, under Admiral Opdam off Lowestoft on 3rd June, 1665, and after a terrible battle, in which Opdam was killed, the Dutch were compelled to retreat.

212. Dominion of the Sea, 1665. Obv. Bust of King r., draped and laureate. CAROLVS II. D. G. M. BR. &c. Simon. Rev. King as Neptune holding trident in naval chariot l., drawn by four sea-horses: fleet in the distance. ET PONTUS SERVIET. 1665. Silver. Size 1·05. Struck.

This beautiful medal is supposed to be the last work of Thomas Simon. It commemorates the dominion of the sea obtained by England by the victory of 3rd June, 1665, over the Dutch.

213. Action at Bergen, 1665. Obv. View of Bergen: naval action in harbour: in foreground, G. POOL. Rev. Inscription in Dutch within oak-wreath. Silver. Size 2·1. Struck. By Jerian Pool.

The reverse inscription narrates that the Earl of Sandwich having entered Bergen harbour on 10th August, 1665, with 15 men of war, &c., was compelled, under the fire of the Dutch, to cut his cables and take to flight.

214. Proposed Commercial Treaty with Spain, 1666. Obv. Bust of King r., laureate, in fringed mantle. CAROLVS SECVNDVS DEI GRATIA MAG. BRIT. &c. Rev. Statue of King in Roman military dress on pedestal near sea crowded with ships. REDEANT COMMERCIA FLANDRIS. 1666. Silver. Size 2·2. Struck. By J. Roettier.

This medal expresses a wish that the preliminaries of a commercial treaty, which was being negotiated with Spain for the free passage of the Scheldt, might be brought to a successful termination. 43

215. Naval engagement, 11–14 June, 1666. Obv. Naval engagement. PVGNANDO. Rev. Inscription in Latin within laurel-wreath, to which are attached the shields of the Seven United Provinces alternately with their bundles of seven arrows. Silver. Size 2·75. Struck. By Jerian Pool.

The Reverse inscription states that this medal is a memorial of the successful engagement of four days, 11–14 June (N. S.), 1666, between the Dutch and English fleets, the latter being defeated with heavy losses. The engagement took place off the North Foreland, and is memorable for its long duration and the desperate courage with which it was fought on both sides. The English fleet was commanded by Monk and Prince Rupert and the Dutch by De Ruyter.

216. Plague and Fire of London, 1666. Obv. Shrine with crucifix between vineyard and cornfield; above, radiate name of Jehovah; in the midst, shepherd feeding sheep, a tranquil river, and in front, St. Paul shaking viper from his hand. MERA BONITAS. Rev. City, one half in flames, the other under storm of rain; in front, disturbed river and Death and warrior contending on horseback: above, eye of Providence, comets and wind. SIC PVNIT. MDCLXVI. Silver. Size 1·35. Struck.

On the obverse are symbolized peace and plenty, the reward of goodness, with St. Paul removing the venomous scourge of the plague by fire; and on the reverse are seen pestilence and fire, the punishment of the wicked.

217. Ships burnt in the Medway and Peace of Breda, 1667. Obv. Burning of ships in the Medway. Legend in Dutch stating that by order, Sir Michael, son of Adrian Ruyter, attacked the ships of war in the river near Chatham, burnt and sank them, &c. Rev. Peace with olive-branch and cornucopiae seated on arms between shields, arms of United Kingdom, France, Denmark, and Sweden on one side, and those of the United Provinces on the other: beneath shields, genii: above, scroll inscribed, SOLI DEO GLORIA; below, another with date of proclamation of Peace, 6 Sep., 1667, &c.: on edge, PA. Silver. Size 2·8. Repoussé. By Pieter van Abeele, whose monogram is on the edge.

In spite of conferences having been opened at Breda to negotiate a treaty of peace, De Witte despatched a fleet to the Nore, which, after burning Sheerness, advanced as far as Chatham and destroyed the shipping. Shortly afterwards a treaty with the Dutch was signed at Breda on 31st July, 1667, and proclaimed on 6th September following. 44

218. Peace of Breda, 1667. Obv. Belgia with sceptre terminating in an open eye and spear with the sheaf of arrows attached, trampling upon Discord; at her feet, lion and lamb: in the distance, ships burning, &c. MITIS ET FORTIS: in ex., PROCVL HINC MALA BESTIA REGNIS. IUN. 22. 1667. C. A. Rev. Peace holding sword and wreath, caduceus and cornucopiae, trampling on arms and crown: above, hand from cloud holding shields of Great Britain and Holland: in the distance, merchant vessels: on scroll, IRATO BELLUM PLACATO NUMINE PAX EST; in ex., REDIIT CONCORDIA MATER BREDÆ. IUL. 31. Ao. 1667: shield, arms of Breda: edge with inscription stating that this medal was struck by permission of the States of Holland and West Friesland, &c. Silver. Size 2·8. Struck. By C. Adolfszoon.15

The issue of this medal by authority of the States gave great offence to Charles, who took the motto HINC MALA BESTIA to apply to himself. Remonstrances were made, a formal apology received, and the dies destroyed. This medal was however one of the grounds of offence in the declaration of War against the Dutch in 1672.

219. Another. Obv. Peace, holding olive-branch and cornucopiae, burning implements of war; under her feet, prostrate soldier; behind, Cupid with arrow. BELLO AB ANGLIS ILLATO A BELGIS FORTITER GESTO, &c.; with date, XXXI. IULII. CI?DCLXVII. Rev. Bird's-eye view of Breda; around, inscr. commemorating treaty. Silver. Size 3·45. Cast and chased. Dutch.

220. Another. Obv. View of Breda from river covered with pleasure barges; above, Fame, surrounded by genii and holding scroll inscribed, SOLI DEO GLORIA. HET OUD BREDAAS KASTEEL, &c. Rev. Ship of Peace r., propelled by favouring gales and accompanied by Fame and Tritons: her sails decorated with the shields of contracting parties: beneath, Ao. 1667. HIER ZEIILT HET VREDESCHIP OP'T ZILUER IN DE ZEE, &c. Silver. Size 3·2. Repoussé and chased; hollow. By Müller.16

221. Another. Obv. An English and Dutch ship sailing side by side with wreaths on main mastheads. Rev. Festoon of fruit and flowers and wreath, to which are suspended two shields, arms of Great Britain and Holland, &c. BRITAN. BATAV. PAX. 1667. C. A. Silver. Size 1·75. Struck. By C. Adolfszoon.

The arms of Great Britain are wrongly quartered, those 45 of Scotland being in the 1st and 4th quarters. The same mistake occurs on No. 218.

222. Proclamation of Treaty of Breda, 1667. Obv. Neptune, in sea-chariot drawn by horses, staying with his trident the progress of a naval engagement. SIC CVNCTUS PELAGI CECIDIT FRAGOR. (Virg. Aen. I, 158.) Rev. View of Breda: above, genii with shields of Denmark, France, England and Holland, with Sweden in centre; beneath, BREDA Den 17 Sept. 1667, G. POOL. NULLA SALUS BELLO, PACEM TE POSCIMUS OMNES. Silver. Size 2·05. Struck. By Jerian Pool.

In the negotiations of peace between England and Holland, Sweden acted as mediator, consequently her shield is placed in the centre as uniting those of the belligerents.

223–224. British Colonization, 1670. Obv. Jugate busts of King in armour, and Queen draped, r. CAROLVS ET CATHARINA REX ET REGINA. Rev. Globe with portions of all the four continents. DIFFVSVS IN ORBE BRITANNVS. 1670. Gold and silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By one of the Roettiers.

This medal alludes to the remarkable growth of British colonization, which as early as 1670 extended over all the four quarters of the Globe. It may however specially refer to the dowry of Queen Catharine, which laid the foundation of the British Empire in India.

The reverse inscription is a play on Virgil's line, "Penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos."

(Ecl. I. 67.)

225. Charles XI. of Sweden, Knight of the Garter, 1671. Obv. St. George and the dragon, r. CAROLVS XI. REX SVE. EQ. NOB. ORD. PERISC. INAVG. 29 MAII. 1671. Rev. Within collar Garter passing through two pairs of Cs crowned; in centre, star of order. CONCORDIA REGVM SALVS POPVLORVM. Silver. Size 1·7. Struck.

Charles XI., King of Sweden, was invested with the Order of the Garter at Stockholm, 29th July, 1668, but not installed till 29th May, 1671.

226. Battle of Solebay, 1672. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS XIIII. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. I. MAVGER F. Rev. Neptune in sea-chariot threatening Holland with his trident. VICTORIA NAVALIS. MDCLXXII. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By J. Mauger.

One of the series of medals of Louis XIV. The Battle of Solebay was fought on the 28th May, 1672, between the combined fleets of England and France under the Duke of 46 York and D'Estrées, and the Dutch under De Ruyter. The battle was indecisive, but the Dutch retired.

227. Christ's Hospital, Foundation of Nautical School, 1673. Obv. Bust of King r., in decorated armour and cloak. CAROLVS SECVNDVS D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Blue-coat boy, surrounded by Arithmetic, Astronomy, Mathematics and Mercury with their attributes; above, genii and winds; in the distance, ships. INSTITVTOR AVGVSTVS. 1673. Silver. Size 2·8. Struck. By J. Roettier. This is described by Evelyn as a "glorious medallion."

In 1672, Charles II. founded a nautical school at Christ's Hospital to provide for the education of forty boys, ten of whom were annually to be placed in the sea-service. Each of them still wears the following badge.

228. Christ's Hospital Badge, 1673. Badge (plaque) with device similar to reverse of preceding medal. Student is surrounded by Arithmetic, Astronomy wearing petasus of Mercury, and Mathematics with their attributes; above, two genii. AVSPICIO CAROL. SECVNDI REGIS. 1673. Silver. Size 3·2. Struck. See preceding.

229. Naval engagement with the Dutch, 1673. Memorial of Captain Van Gelder. Obv. Shield, arms of Van Gelder and crest, &c.; beneath, in compartment, inscr. in Dutch, "In memory of Jan Paulz van Gelder, Captain, dead in the bed of honour, 21st Aug. 1673, aged 26 years." VAN GELDERS ZEEVOOGDS SOON, &c. Rev. Naval engagement: in ex., PVGNANDO. DE VADER WON DE SLAG DE ZOON VERLOOR ZYN BLOED, &c. Silver. Size 3·05. Cast and chased; hollow. By Jerian Pool.

A memorial of Captain van Gelder, son-in-law of Admiral de Ruyter, who was killed in the action of the 21st Aug., 1673, between the combined English and French fleets, and the Dutch.

230. Peace of London, 1674. Obv. William III., Prince of Orange on horseback l.: in the distance, troops bombarding town on the sea-shore; above, scroll entwined with orange-branch and inscribed, VIRES ULTRA SORTEMQUE IUVENTÆ. Rev. Dove with palm and olive-branch flying l., over tranquil sea; in the distance, ships and rising sun. a DoMIno VenIT paX et VICtorIa Læta; chronogrammatic. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. Dutch.

Peace between England and Holland was concluded in London in 1674. The obverse alludes to the appointment at a very early age of William as Commander-in-Chief of 47 the army of the United Provinces and Stadtholder, and also to the capture of Naerden in 1674.

231. Marriage of William III., Prince of Orange, and Princess Mary, 1677. Obv. Bust of William r., in armour, &c. GVILH. III. D. G. PRIN. AVR. HOL. ET WES. GV. Rev. Bust of Mary l., draped, wearing pearls in hair. MARIA D. G. AVR. PRIN. NAT. DE IORC. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck.

William III., Prince of Orange, married Mary, elder dau. of James, Duke of York, 4th Nov. 1677. This medal is supposed to be the work of Nicholas Chevalier.

232. Peace of Nimeguen, 1678. Obv. Gallia and Belgium, their hands united through serpent-ring, standing before altar decorated with imperial eagle, and inscribed, 1678. O. 20. NEOMAGI; above, eye of Providence. GALLIA CUM BELGIO PACATA PER ANGEIAM. Rev. Peace, with attributes, standing on globe between Mercury and genii supporting shields of Spain, France, and Holland; beneath, lie Discord and War bound; the whole within wreath of olive-branches. Silver. Size 2·7. Struck. Dutch.

The treaty of Nimeguen, negotiated by England between France and Holland, was concluded Aug. 1678, but not proclaimed till 20th Oct. following. Extremely coarse work.

233. Popish Plot, 1678. Details of murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey. Obv. Three divisions; in centre one, two monks strangling Godfrey, above whom 1678, and two men carrying him in sedan chair; above, their names GREENE. KELY. HILL. & BERY; below, IVSTICE KILLERS TO HIS HO(liness); in lower division Godfrey lying on his face, his sword passed through his body; in upper division the Pope prompted by the Devil. ROMES REVENGE OR SR. EDMVNDBERY GODFREY MVRTHERED IN THE POPES SLAVGHTER HOVS. Reverse plain. Pewter. Size 2·8. Cast and chased.

Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, after being strangled near the watergate at Somerset-house, was carried by his murderers in a sedan chair to Soho Square, and from thence on horseback to Primrose Hill, where they left him in a ditch with his own sword run through his body, in the position of one who had committed suicide.

234. Another. Obv. Bust of Godfrey r., in doublet, &c., two hands strangling him with his cravat. MORIENDO RESTITVIT REM E. GODFREY. Rev. Green strangling Godfrey in the presence of the Pope, who holds papal bull and blesses the murderer. TANTVM RELLIGIO POTVIT; (Lucret. Lib. I. 102); on edge, CERVICE FRACTA FIDEM SVSTVLIT ATLAS XNS. 1678. Silver. Size 1·5. Struck. By G. Bower.

The inscr. on the edge compares Godfrey to Atlas, who 48 required all his strength to sustain the world, whilst Godfrey sustained the faith with a broken neck.

235. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Hill on horseback supporting before him the dead body of Godfrey, and accompanied by another murderer feigning drunkenness and carrying sword; in the distance, Primrose Hill; stars shew that it is night. EQVO CREDITE TVCRI (sic). (Virg. Aen. II. 48.) Edge as preceding. Silver. Size 1·55. Struck. By G. Bower.

In conveying the body of Godfrey from Soho to Primrose Hill the murderers agreed that, if stopped on the road, they should pretend that they were taking home a drunken companion.

236. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. The Pope's head and the Devil's joined in one face. ECCLESIA PERVERSA TENET FACIEM DIABOLI. Edge as on No. 234. Silver-gilt. Size 1·45. Struck.

This reverse design was a very common one at the time of the Reformation.

237. Another. Obv. Godfrey walking after his murder. GODFREY WALKS VP HIL AFTER HEE IS DEAD. ERGO PARES (SVMVS on rev.); in ex., PRO. (Protestant). Rev. St. Denis after martyrdom carrying his head. DENNYS WALKS DOWNE HIL CARRYING HIS HEAD. SVMVS (PARES, &c., on obv.) in ex., PA. (Papist). Silver. Size 1·5. Struck. By G. Bower.

Like St. Denis, who after his martyrdom picked up his head and carried it under his arm, Godfrey is represented walking after his murder, because it was asserted by some of the accused party that they had seen him walking about Primrose Hill after the stated time of his murder. The "Protestant" Saint was thus equal to the "Papist."

238. Another. Obv. A Janus head; Jesuit's face with cap, and Monk's with cowl. O WHY SO FICKLE. Rev. Cluster of seven heads. BIRDS OF A FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By G. Bower.

Great uncertainty exists in the identification of the heads on this medal. Evelyn supposes the double head to represent Titus Oates and Bedloe, and the cluster the heads of the supposed detectors of the Plot. It is quite as probable that the heads may be those of Charles, James and the five Cabal Ministers.

239. Duke of York wrecked, 1682. Obv. Bust of the Duke of York r., wearing mantle. IACOBUS DUX EBORACENSIS ET ALBANENSIS. G.B.F. Rev. Ship in distress off a rocky 49 shore. IMPAVIDUM FERIUNT. (Hor. Car. III. 3. 8.) Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By G. Bower.

When the Duke of York was returning from Scotland with several noblemen and friends, the vessel struck on the Lemon and Oar Sandbank, off the Norfolk coast, and the Duke and all his companions narrowly escaped drowning.

240. Rye House Plot, 1683. Obv. King as Hercules warding off with his hand Hydra with seven human heads; above, hand with thunder; distant view of Windsor Castle. PERIBVNT FVLMINIS ICTV. 1683. G.B.F. Rev. Shepherd seated on mound watching flock, near which two wolves hanging on gibbet; London in the distance; above, dove with olive-branch. DEVS NOBIS HÆC OTIA FECIT. (Virg. Ecl. 1. 6.) Silver. Size 1·75. Struck. By G. Bower.

Struck to commemorate the Rye House Plot. The Hydra represents the committee of six, who associated themselves for the redress of grievances, Monmouth, Lord W. Russell, Hampden, Algernon Sidney, the Earl of Essex, and Lord Howard, the seventh is the devil. The two wolves are Sidney and Russell.

241. Death of Charles II., 1685. Obv. Head of King r., wearing lion's skin. CAROLUS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Rev. Setting sun. OMNIA ORTA OCCIDUNT. (Sall. Jugur. II.) MDCLXXXV. Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. Dutch.

Charles died on the 6 Feb., 1685, at the age of 55.

242. Duke and Duchess of York, 1680. Obv. Bust of Duke of York r., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS DVX EBORACENSIS. G.B.F. Rev. Bust of Duchess of York l., draped, &c. MARIA DVCISSA EBORACENSIS. 1680. Silver. Size 2. Struck. By G. Bower.

James Duke of York mar. 21 Nov. 1673 Mary d'Este sister of the Duke of Modena.

243. Marriage of Prince George of Denmark and Princess Anne, 1683. Obv. Busts of George, in armour, and Anne, draped, facing each other. GEORGIVS CIMBRORVM PRINCEPS ET ANNA IACOBI DVCIS EBORACENSIS FILIA. G.B.F. Rev. An oak tree; on ground, acorns. FACTVRA NEPOTIBVS VMBRAM. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. By G. Bower.

Prince George of Denmark mar. 17 Aug. 1683 Princess, afterwards Queen Anne, dau. of James (II.) then Duke of York. 50

244. Lucie de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. Obv. Bust r., loosely draped. LVCIA DVCISSA PORTSMOVTHENSIS. Rev. Cupid seated upon globe. OMNIA VINCIT. Silver. Size 1·1. Struck. By G. Bower.

Louisa Renée de Pennecourt de Querouaille, mistress of Charles II., received from him in 1673 the title of Duchess of Portsmouth.

245. Frances Stuart, Duchess of Richmond. Obv. Bust l., in classical dress. Reverse plain. Copper. Size 2·75. Struck. This medal appears to be the work of J. Roettier.

Frances Terese, eldest dau. of Walter Stuart, third son of the first Lord Blantyre, one of the greatest beauties at the court of Charles II., mar. 1667 Charles Lennox, fourth duke of Richmond. Died 1702.

246. Duke of Albemarle, 1660. Obv. Bust r., in armour. Rev. GEORGIVS MONKE OMNIVM COPIARVM IN ANGLIA SCOTIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ DVX SVPREMVS ET THALASSIARCHA. ÆTA. 52. 1660. Gold. Size 1·35. Cast and chased. By A. and T. Simon. A. Simon executed the model of this medal and the following (Nos. 248–250), and his brother Thomas chased them.

George Monk, born 1608, commanded in Ireland and Scotland for Parliament, was Commander-in-Chief of all the forces and High Admiral at the Restoration, when he was created Duke of Albemarle. Died 1670.

247. Another (Badge). Obv. Bust l., in armour and cloak. GEORGE DVKE OF ALBEMARLE; engraved. Rev. Within the Garter, shield, arms of Monk surmounted by ducal coronet; wreath-border. Silver. Oval. Size 1·4. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

248. Earl of Clarendon, 1662. Obv. Bust r., in Chancellor's robes; on arm, Th. Simon F. Rev. EDOARDVS COMMES CLARENDONIÆ SVMMVS ANGLIÆ CANCELLARIVS, &c., MDCLXII. Silver. Size 1·7. Cast and chased. By A. and T. Simon.

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, born 1608, was Chancellor of the Exchequer to Charles I.; at the Restoration appointed Lord Chancellor with the title of Earl of Clarendon; banished in 1667. Died 1674 at Rouen, where he wrote his "History of the Rebellion."

249. Earl of Southampton, 1664. Obv. Bust l., in cloak; on arm, Tho. Simon. Rev. THOMAS COMES SOVTHAMPTONIÆ 51 SVMMVS ANGLIÆ THESAVRARIVS, &c. MDCLXIIII. Gold. Size 1·6. Cast and chased. By A. and T. Simon.

Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, was much employed by the King in negotiating with the Parliament during the civil war; appointed at the Restoration Lord High Treasurer. Died 1667.

250. Another. Similar: bust with cap. Gold. Size 1·6. Cast and chased. By A. and T. Simon.

251. Unknown Portrait, 1662 (?) Obv. Bust l., wearing mantle, &c. Reverse plain. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased. Probably by A. Simon.

252. Thomas Simon, circ. 1660. Obv. Half-length figure, three quarters l., wearing doublet. No reverse. Silver. Oval. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

A chasing by Stuart: the original is unknown, but was probably executed by A. Simon.

253. Abraham Simon, circ. 1660. Obv. Bust r., bearded, wearing doublet and chain with medal of Christina, Queen of Sweden. No reverse. Silver. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

A chasing by Stuart executed about the middle of the eighteenth century from a wax model in the British Museum by A. Simon himself. Abraham Simon always wore a medal of Christina of Sweden, it having been given him by the Queen during his residence at her court.

254. Lord Berkeley, 1666. Obv. Bust of Berkeley r., wearing cloak. GEORGE DE BERKELEY PAIR D'ANGLETERRE. 1666. DV FOVR. Rev. Tree, around stem crown inscr. CIMBRIA; in branches, shield arms of Berkeley with supporters; above, baronial coronet. REGIBVS ATAVIS. (cf. Hor. Car. I. 1.) VIRTVTE NON VI. Silver. Size 2. Struck. French by Du Four.

George, Lord (Earl) Berkeley, descended from Robert Fitzharding of the Royal House of Denmark, was 13th Lord Berkeley, succeeded to the title 1658, was privy councillor in the reigns of Charles II. and James II., and was one of those who invited William III. of Orange to England: created Viscount Dursley and Earl Berkeley 1679. Died 1698. 52

255. Duke of Lauderdale, 1672. Obv. Bust r., in armour and cloak. Rev. Minerva seated r., resting her arm on shield, arms of Lauderdale, whose helmet and crest she holds in her left hand. Motto, CONSILIO ET ANIMIS. 1672. Joan Rott. F. Silver. Size 2·45. Struck. By J. Roettier.

This medal was executed when Lauderdale was created Duke in 1672. (See also No. 119.)

256. Earl of Shaftesbury, 1681. Obv. Bust r., in cloak. ANTONIO COMITI DE SHAFTESBVRY. G. B. F. Rev. View of London, Sun appearing from behind cloud. LÆTAMVR. 24. NOV. 1681. Silver. Size 1·55. Struck. By G. Bower.

Anthony Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury, born 1621, created Baron Ashley 1660 and Earl of Shaftesbury 1672, was, after the Restoration, Chancellor of the Exchequer, a member of the Cabal Ministry and in 1672 Lord Chancellor. Died 1683. This medal was struck to commemorate the acquittal of Shaftesbury on the charge of high treason, 24 Nov. 1681.

257. Duke of Ormond, 1682. Obv. Bust r., wearing armour, &c. IACOBVS DVX ORMONIÆ. G. BOWERS F. Rev. Sword and olive-branch within ducal coronet. PRÆSIDIVM ET DVLCE DECVS. (Hor. Car. I. 2.) 1682. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck. By G. Bower.

James Butler, Duke of Ormond, general and statesman, born 1610, succeeded to Earldom, 1633, created Marquis 1642 for services in Ireland, and after Restoration advanced to a Dukedom: he was twice appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Died 1688.

JAMES II. 1685–1688.

258–259. Accession, 1685. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in cloak. IACOBUS II. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. ET HI. REX. I. R. (monogram). Rev. Bust of Queen r., laur., draped. MARIA D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. ET HI. REGINA. I. R. (monogram). Gold and silver. Size 1·35. Struck. By John Roettier.

The Accession of James II. took place on 6 Feb. 1685.

260. Coronation, 1685. Obv. Same. Rev. Laurel-wreath on cushion: above, hand from cloud holding crown. A MILITARI AD REGIAM. INAVGVRAT. 23. AP. 1685. Gold. Size 1·35. Struck. By J. Roettier.

This medal was the official one distributed among those present at the coronation 23 April, 1685. 53

261. Another. Obv. Same as Rev. of No. 258. Rev. The Queen as Venus seated on a mound. O DEA CERTE. (Virg. Aen. I. 332.) Gold. Size 1·25. Struck. By J. Roettier.

Like the previous medal struck and distributed at the coronation.

262. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., wearing cloak. IACOBVS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. G. B. F. Rev. Victory with flaming sword and branch guarding crown on chair. TUTAMEN AB ALTO. Silver. Size 1·7. Struck. By G. Bower.

263. Opening of Scottish Parliament, 1685. Obv. Head of King r., laur. IACOBUS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Rev. Lion couchant crowned holding sceptre and orb. NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET. MDCLXXXV. I. S. Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.17

The Scottish Parliament, summoned by the King, assembled on St. George's day, 23 April 1685, the day of the King's coronation. The English Parliament did not meet till 22 May following.

264–265. James and Mary, 1685. Obv. Busts jugate r. of King laur., and Queen both draped. IACOBUS II. ET MARIA D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. G. B. F. Rev. Sun radiate. FORTES RADII SED BENIGNI. 1685. Silver-gilt and silver. Size 2·05. Struck. By G. Bower.

This medal was probably struck about the time of the coronation.

266. Duke of Monmouth, 1685. Rebellion. Obv. Head of Monmouth r., in armour. IACOBUS DUX MONUMET. FID. ET LIBERT. DEFENSOR. Rev. Roman soldier attempting to tear open lion's jaw. PARUM SUCCESSIT, FECI SEDULO. MDCLXXXV. Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

This medal was struck after Monmouth's defeat at Sedgemoor.

267. Another. Defeat, 1685. Obv. Bust of Monmouth r., in armour and cloak, G. BOWERS F. Rev. Monmouth falling from rock in the ocean, on summit of which are three crowns, palm and 54 laurel branches. SVPERI RISERE. (Ovid. Met. IV. 188.) IVLY 6o. 1685. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck. By G. Bower.

This medal was issued after the failure of Monmouth's rebellion.

268. Monmouth beheaded, 1685. Obv. Bust, similar to preceding. IACOBVS DVX MONVMETHENSIS. G. BOWERS F. Rev. Two genii in clouds supporting ducal coronet, above cipher J. E. D. M. (James Edward, Duke of Monmouth). CAPVT INTER NVBILA. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck. By G. Bower.

Monmouth was executed on Tower Hill 15 July, 1685.

269. Another. Obv. Head of Monmouth r. IACOBUS INFELIX DUX MONUMETHENSIS. Rev. Decapitated head of Monmouth on ground spouting blood. HUNC SANGUINEM LIBO DEO LIBERATORI. CÆSA CERVIX. LON. IULY. 15/25 1685. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

270. Monmouth and Argyll, beheaded, 1685. Obv. Bust of King l., laur., on pedestal, and resting on the four sceptres of England, Scotland, Ireland and France, pedestal ornamented with royal shield in Garter, crowned, and inscribed, ARAS ET SCEPTRA TUEMUR. 1685. R. A. FEC.; in the distance, sea with ships and Neptune in sea-chariot. IACOBVS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Rev. On pedestal inscribed, AMBITIO MALESUADA RUIT, Justice holding sword and weighing three crowns against sword, torch and serpent; at her feet, bodies of Monmouth and Argyll, their heads on blocks inscribed with their names: distant view of troops destroyed by lightning, and Tower of London with heads on spears. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By R. Arondeaux.18

This medal commemorates the unsuccessful invasions of Monmouth and Argyll, both of whom were defeated, captured and beheaded, Monmouth in London, 15 July, 1685, and Argyll in Edinburgh 30 July following.

271. Naval or Military Reward, 1685. Obv. Bust of King r., wearing mantle. IACOBVS II. DEI GRA. ANG. SCOT, &c. J. R. (monogram). Rev. Trophy of arms; in the distance, naval engagement. GENVS ANTIQVVM. Silver. Size 2·5. Struck. By J. Roettier.

Struck for a naval or military reward and distributed after the defeats of Monmouth and Argyll.

272. King's conduct towards the Church, 1688. Obv. Pedestal inscribed BRITANNIA; on it, dove, chalice, wafer, 55 rosary and mitre, and in centre, Bible surmounted by cap inscribed, LIBERT.: above, hand from cloud with scroll, inscribed, C. FAGELII EPISTOLA EFFLAGITATA A I. STEWARDO. 1687. Leg. LIBERTAS CONSCIENTIÆ HOC MONILI ORNATA. Rev. Dog wearing rosary swallowing book with M. I. (Magnum Juramentum) trampling on another with L. C. (Libertas Conscientiae) and throwing down from column ornamented with serpent-band a third with S. R. P. (Salus Religionis Protestantis) and seals T. P. (Test and Penal Laws). RES IMMODERATA CUPIDO EST. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

Tho Obverse represents the religious toleration of Britain; the Mitre of the Church of England, the chalice, wafer, and rosary of Rome, and the dove of the Nonconformists having the free Bible in their centre. The inscribed scroll refers to the engagement by James of James Steward, a Scottish lawyer, to write letters to the Pensionary Fagel with a view to induce William and Mary to approve the abolition of the Test and Penal Laws. The Reverse symbolizes James devouring his coronation oath, trampling on the liberty of conscience, and removing the Test and Penal Laws, which sealed the safety of the state.

273. Trial of the Seven Bishops, 1688. Obv. Bust of Sancroft r., in robes and skull cap. GVIL. SANCROFT ARCHIEPISC. CANTVAR. 1688. Rev. Medallions with portraits of the six Bishops; in centre, another of Bishop of London: stars in field. G. B. F.; on edge, SI FRACTUS ILLABATVR ORBIS IMPAUIDOS FERIENT RUINÆ. (Hor. Car. III. 3. 8.) Silver. Size 2. Struck. By G. Bower.

The Bishops who were committed to the Tower for opposing the declaration of indulgence issued by James, were Sancroft of Canterbury, Lloyd of St. Asaph, Ken of Bath and Wells, Turner of Ely, Lake of Chichester, White of Peterborough and Trelawny of Bristol; to these is added the portrait of Compton of London, who on account of his opposition to James had been suspended and removed from the Council table and Deanery of the Chapel Royal.

274. Another. Sancroft and Pleiades, 1688. Obv. Same. Rev. Seven stars, Pleiades in the midst of the starry heavens. QVIS RESTRINGET PLEIADVM DELICIAS. IOB. C. 38. Silver. Size 2. Struck. By G. Bower.

The seven Bishops are likened to the beneficent Pleiades. 56

275. Another. Obv. Jesuit and Monk undermining Church founded on a rock supported by hand from heaven. THE GATES OF HELL SHALL NOT PREVAILE. (Mat. xvi. 18.) Rev. Seven Medallions of Sancroft and the six Bishops with Eng. inscr. L. AB. CAN. &c.; over each, mitre. WISDOM HATH BVILDED HER HOVS SHE HATH HEWEN OVT HER 7 PILLERS. (Prov. ix. 1.) Silver. Size 2·25. Cast and chased. Dutch, and of very coarse work.

The Church is the Church of England undermined by the Jesuits and Monks, but protected by Heaven.

276. Another. The Bishops imprisoned, 1688. Obv. The White Tower of London; in the distance, Bishops approaching, under a guard; populace on the other side. PROBIS HONORI INFAMIÆQVE MALIS: and in ex., names of seven Bishops with date of imprisonment 8/18 June and liberation 15/25 June, 1688. Rev. Sun and moon equally balanced in scales suspended from clouds. SIC SOL LUNAQUE IN LIBRA. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck. By J. Smeltzing ?

The sun and moon are said to represent the King and the people equally balanced.

277. Another. Sancroft and Church, 1688. Obv. Bust of Sancroft l., in robes and skull cap. GVIL. SANCROFT ARCHIEPS. CANT. Rev. Church on rock amidst sea, buffeted by four winds. IMMOTA TRIVMPHANS. Silver. Size 1·2. Struck. By G. Bower.

278. Birth of Prince James, 1688. Obv. Royal shield and crown supported by four genii, two of whom hold shield of Cornwall and Prince's plume. HONOR. PRIN. MAG. BRIT. FRA. ET HIB. NAT. 10. IVN. 1688. Rev. Infant Prince on cushion; above, genii with trumpets and holding scroll, inscribed, VENIAT CENTESIMVS HÆRES: in the distance, ships, &c. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. By G. Bower.

Prince James (Elder Pretender) was born 10 June, 1688.

279. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., laur., draped. IACOBUS II. D. G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERATOR. Rev. Queen in bed holding infant. FELICITAS PUBLICA; in ex., inscription giving date of Prince's birth, 20 June (N.S.) and stating that this medal was struck by order of Ignatius White, Marq. d'Albeville, &c., Ambassador in Holland. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. Dutch.

Ignatius White, Marquis d'Albeville was Ambassador Extraordinary for England in Holland at the time of the Prince's birth, which he celebrated with much pomp and with splendid entertainments. 57

280. Another. Obv. Truth opening door of cabinet and revealing Jesuit thrusting through trap child with pyx and crown; door inscribed, IAC. FRANC. EDUARD. SUPPOSIT. 20. IUNII 1688; in distance, sea with ships. SIC NON HEREDE DEERUNT. Rev. Trojan horse wearing saddle-cloth, inscribed, LIBERT. CON?. SINE IURAM. ET LEG. P.; on girth, ASTU; in distance, Troy in flames. EQUO NUNQUAM TU CREDE BRITANNE. (Cf. Virg. Aen. II. 48.) Silver. Size 2·25. Struck.

This medal was struck in Holland at the instigation of those who asserted that the Prince was a supposititious child, and that Father Petre and the Jesuits were the contrivers of the plot.

281. Another. Obv. Aglauros opening basket, from which escapes Ericthonius, in distance two frightened women. INFANTEMQUE VIDENT, APORRECTUMQUE DRACONEM. Rev. Drooping withered rose-bush with two flowers; at small distance, young sucker. TAMEN NASCATUR OPORTET. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. Dutch.

The Prince is here likened to Ericthonius. As the Queen was by certain persons held to be incapable of bearing a child, they considered the Prince not to be of royal blood but a pretender, or as Ericthonius, to have been produced without a mother. The rosebush with two roses is symbolical of the King and Queen, and the sucker of the Prince, which springs up at such a distance that its parent stock is doubtful.

282. Antichristian Confederacy, 1688. Obv. Soliman III., Louis XIV., the Dey of Algiers, and James swearing alliance at lighted altar, on side of which crescent above ?; on the altar snake. SOLIMAN III. LVDOV. XIIII. MEZOMORTO. IACOBVS II. CONTRA CHRISTI ANIMVM. Rev. Three lilies supporting crescent; above, imp in Jesuit's cap with sword and thunderbolt. IN FOEDERE QUINTUS. 1688. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. Dutch.

It was rumoured in Holland that a secret treaty had been concluded between James and Louis XIV. called "The French league to cut Protestants' throats in England," and also that James had allowed some Algerine Corsairs to carry Dutch prizes into English ports. Like-wise Louis was accused of exciting the Turks against the Germans. As illustrating these rumours these four potentates are represented as leaguing together against Christianity, the devil being a fifth conspirator. 58

283. Invitation to William of Orange, 1688. Obv. Busts of William and Mary jugate r., draped. Beneath, M. WILH. HENR. ET MARIA D. G. AUR. PRINC. ETC. REFORMATIONIS VINDICES; above, ATAVUM PRO LIBERTATE FIDEQUE. Rev. Religion under eye of Providence trampling upon emblems of Romanism and resting her l. hand on cap of liberty, placed upon open Bible lying on altar inscribed, SS. FIDES; in r. hand, scroll inscribed, LITTERÆ FAGELII. Leg. IAM MIHI ROMA MINAX FISTULA DULCE CANIT; in ex., REFORMATIO ANGLIÆ. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size 2·45. Struck. Dutch.

When Zuleistein, who had been sent by William to congratulate James on the birth of the Prince, returned to Holland, he brought back with him an invitation to William numerously signed to place himself at the head of the Protestant party in England. The reverse refers to the mistrust of the Protestant party of the declaration of Liberty of Conscience, and to Religion, who, claiming an open and free Bible, appeals to the letters of Fagel as setting forth the principles of William. (See No. 272.)

284. Flight of James, 1689. Obv. Bust of King l., wearing bag-wig, and draped. IACOBUS II. BRITAN. REX FUGITIV. Rev. Column shattered by lightning; distant view of London. NON ICTV HVMANO SED FLATV DIVINO; in ex., SPONTE FUGIT IACOB. II. ANG. REX L. 20. DEC. CAPTUS 23. D. 1688. ITERUM FUGIT 2. IAN. 1689. S.N. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

James fled from London 20 Dec. for France, but driven back by contrary winds, and being seized by the inhabitants of Faversham, he returned to London, but at the desire of William of Orange, he again left 2 Jan., and from the Medway sailed to France.

285. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. An oak and an orange tree, the former broken; behind, sea with ships and rising sun. PRO GLANDIBVS AVREA POMA; in ex., POST FUGAM REGIS DELATA REGNI ADMINISTRATIO PRINCIPI AURIA. 3. JAN. 1689. S.N. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

The abdication of James is symbolized by the broken oak, and the accession of William by the orange tree and rising sun.

286. Another. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS REX. Rev. Belgic lion carrying flag with Christian monogram and staff with cap of Liberty, driving before him James with broken sword, and Father Petre bearing infant Prince holding 59 toy-windmill; in the distance, French ship. AVT REX AVT NIHIL; in ex., REGIFVGIVM IAC. AD LVD. XIV. Lead. Size 1·5. Struck. Dutch.

Father Petre was the King's confessor and chief adviser. The Prince is represented with a windmill, because those who disputed his legitimacy said he was the son of a miller.

287. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., laur. and draped. IACOBUS II. D. G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERATOR. Rev. Vixen with torch firing tree, in which eagle and eaglet in nest; in the distance, eagle carrying off fox's cub. 4. IAN. 1689. S.N. MAGNIS INTERDUM PARVA NOCENT. REGNO ABDICATO IN GALLIAM APPULIT. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

The intended application of the reverse design is uncertain. The vixen may represent England driving out the King, who had deprived her of her religious liberty.

288. Flight of Prince James, 1688. Obv. Father Petre mounted on lobster, and holding in his arms the young Prince, on whose head is a windmill; in distance, ship with French flag. ALLONS MON PRINCE NOUS SOMMES EN BON CHEMIN; in ex., IAC. FRANC. EDUARD SUPPOSEE. 20. JUIN. 1688. Rev. Shield bearing windmill, surmounted by Jesuit's cap, and surrounded by rosary with inscription, HONI SOIT QUI NON Y PENSE; and badge, a lobster. LES ARMES ET L'ORDRE DU PRETENDU PRINCE DE GALLES. Silver. Size 1·25. Struck.

Executed in Holland and a satire on the birth of Prince James. The lobster is a satirical allusion to the order of the Jesuits, of which body Father Petre was a member, and whose founder having accidentally dropped his Bible into the sea, was presented with it the next morning by a lobster. The arms on the reverse refer to the disputed legitimacy of the prince. (See No. 286.)

289. Reception of James by Louis XIV., 1689. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS XIIII. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. I. MAVGER F. Rev. Gallia receiving James, his Queen and son. PERFUGIUM REGIBUS: in ex., IAC. II. M. BR. REX CUM REG. CONI. ET PR. WALLIAE IN GALL. RECEPTUS. MDCLXXXIX. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By J. Mauger.

One of the historical series of medals of Louis XIV.

290. Another. Obv. Same as No. 287. Rev. Sun partially eclipsed by moon; below, landscape and sea with ships. ORBATA LUCE 60 LUCIDUM OBSCURAT; in ex., LUD. XIV. GALL. REX ADMITTIT IAC. II. BRIT. REGEM FUG. VII. IAN. MDCLXXXIX. S.N. Silver. Size 2·25. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

The sun was the emblem of Louis XIV., which is here represented as eclipsed by the fortunes of James, the moon.

291. Memorial of James II., 1701. Bust of King r., laur., wearing armour and cloak; on shoulder, 88 (1688). IACOBVS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET HIB. REX NAT. OCT. 17. 33. OB. SEP. 4. 1701. ÆTAT. 67. Lead. Oval. Size 3·65. Cast. A plaque.

This thin plate of lead may have been intended for the lid of a box. It was executed after the death of James probably during the reign of Anne.

STUART FAMILY.

292. James (Elder Pretender) Prince of Wales, 1697. Obv. Bust of Prince l., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. N.R. Rev. Ship, with flag of England, in distress. 1697. IACTATVR NON MERGITVR VNDIS. Copper. Size 1·75. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This and the following medals, Nos. 293–296 are supposed to have been struck at the time of the treaty of Ryswick, when James II. in vain attempted to have his cause advocated.

293–294. Another. Obv. Head of Prince l. IAC. WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. N. R. Rev. Dove with olive-branch flying r., over tranquil sea. MANSVRÆ NVNTIA PACIS. 1697. Copper-gilt and copper. Size .95. Struck. By N. Roettier.

295–296. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Mine exploding in a bastion. QVO COMPRESSA MAGIS. 1697. Copper-gilt and copper. Size .95. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal foretells the future success of the cause of the Stuarts.

297. James II. and the Elder Pretender, 1699. Obv. Head of James II. r., laur. IACOBVS II. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. REX. 1699. N. R. Rev. Bust of Prince James l., in armour and cloak. IAC. WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal and the following one were struck for presentation to the adherents of the King and Prince of Wales, who visited them in their exile. 61

298. Another. Obv. Bust of James II. r., laur., in armour. IACOBVS II. D. G. M. B. R. N. R. Rev. Bust of Prince James 1., in armour. IAC. WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. N. R. Silver. Size 1·05. Struck. By N. Roettier.

299. James, Elder Pretender and Princess Louisa, 1699? Busts of Prince James, in armour, and his sister, Princess Louisa, draped, facing each other in separate oval compartments; above and below, scroll work. Silver. Size 2. Embossed. A thin plaque of silver which may have served for the lid of a box.

300. James (III.), Elder Pretender, 1704. Protection of Louis XIV. Obv. Bust of James l. IAC. III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. REX. N. R. Rev. Sun dispersing clouds; below, landscape and sea with ships. VIRTUS MOX NUBILA PELLET. 1704. Silver. Size 1·1. Struck. By N. Roettier.

James was under the protection of Louis XIV., who in the form of the sun, his emblem, may be said to be dispelling the clouds, which obscured James's prospects.

301–302. Another. Restoration of Kingdom, 1709? Obv. Bust of James l., in armour and cloak. CVIVS EST. N. R. Rev. Map of Great Britain and Ireland with their capitals marked by initial letters; ships in sea. REDDITE IGITVR. Silver and copper. Size 2. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal is addressed to the adherents of the House of Stuart calling upon them to restore the kingdom to him to whom it belongs.

303. Another. Obv. Similar; bust of James r., laur. N. R. (monogram). Rev. Similar. REDDITE. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. By N. Roettier.

304. Claim of Elder Pretender, 1710. Obv. Head of James l., laur. IACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. REX. Rev. Sheep in field. COGNOSCUNT ME MEÆ. 1710. Silver. Size 1·2. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal is specially addressed to those who still supported the Pretender's claim to the English throne.

305. James (III.), Elder Pretender, and Princess Louisa, 1712. Obv. Bust of James l., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. &c. Rev. Bust of Princess Louisa l., draped. PRINCEPS LVD. SER. M. B. REGIS SOROR. Copper-gilt. Size 2. Cast and chased.

Issued for circulation amongst the partisans of the Stuarts in England. This medal is a copy executed in England from an original by N. Roettier. 62

306. Attempts of James (III.) to recover English throne in 1708 & 1716. Obv. Bust of James r., in armour and cloak. NIHIL EFFICIENS. Rev. Map of Great Britain and Ireland and ships in sea; dates of expeditions on Scotland. BIS VENIT VIDIT NON VICIT FLENSQVE RECESSIT. Silver. Size 1·3. Struck.

This medal ridicules the two ineffectual attempts of James to place himself upon the throne of England in March, 1708, and in February, 1716.

307–308. James (III.), Elder Pretender, and Princess Clementina, 1719. Obv. Bust of James r., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. F. &c. Rev. Bust of Clementina l., draped, hair with jewels. CLEMENTINA MAGNAE BRITANNIAE ETC. REG.; on arm, OTTO HAMERANI. Silver and copper. Size 1·9. Struck. By O. Hamerani.19

A memorial of the marriage of James with Maria Clementina, granddaughter of John (III.), Sobieski, King of Poland.

309. Clementina Sobieski. Escape from Innsprück, 1719. Obv. Bust l., in gown and mantle, hair with jewels. CLEMENTINA M. BRITAN. FR. &c. OTTO HAMERANI F. Rev. Clementina in car drawn by two horses at full speed l., distant view of city, ships, sun rising, &c. FORTVNAM CAVSAM QVE SEQVOR; in ex., DECEPTIS CVSTODIBVS. MDCCXIX. Silver. Size 1·85. Struck. By O. Hamerani.

The Emperor Charles VI. disapproving of the marriage of James with Clementina, seized the latter on her way through the Tyrol and placed her in confinement in Innsprück, from whence she escaped in male attire and fled to Bologna, where she was married by proxy to James, who was at that time in Spain.

310. Birth of Prince Charles, Younger Pretender, 1720. Obv. Jugate busts of James in armour, and Clementina, draped, r. IACOB. III. R. CLEMENTINA R. HAMERAN. Rev. Female figure (Providence) facing, holding infant on l. arm, which rests upon column, and with r. pointing at globe with map of Great Britain and Ireland. PROVIDENTIA OBSTETRIX; in ex., 63 CAROLO PRINC. VALLIÆ NAT. DIE VLTIMA A. MDCCXX. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By O. Hamerani.

Prince Charles, Younger Pretender, born 31 Dec. 1720. The child's attention is directed to the globe, on which are represented the kingdoms, which it would be his future object to attain.

311. Rule of the House of Hanover, 1721. Obv. Bust of James r., in armour and cloak. VNICA SALVS. Rev. Hanoverian horse trampling on British lion and unicorn: Britannia weeping, and fugitives carrying off their goods; in the distance, London. QVID GRAVIVS CAPTA. MDCCXXI. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck.

This medal satirizes the accession of the House of Hanover to the throne of England. In the year 1721 great efforts were made to rouse the adherents of the Stuarts into action.

312–313. Prince Charles, Younger Pretender, and Prince Henry, circ. 1730. Obv. Bust of Prince Charles r., in armour and cloak; before, star. MICAT INTER OMNES. (Hor. Car. I. 12. 46.) Rev. Bust of Prince Henry l., wearing armour and ribbon. ALTER AB ILLO; on arm, H.; on edge, DIE XXXI. DECEMBR. MDCCXX. EXTVLIT OS SACRVM COELO. (Virg., Aen. VIII. 591.) Gold and silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By O. Hamerani.

The two Princes here represented are Prince Charles, afterwards called the Younger Pretender, Charles III., &c., and Prince Henry, afterwards Cardinal of York, and styled Henry IX. This medal commemorates the birth of Prince Charles.

314. Another. Obv. Bust of Prince Charles r., in armour and cloak; on shoulder, wolf and twins. HVNC SALTEM EVERSO IVVENEM. (Virg., Geo. I. 500.) Rev. Bust of Prince Henry r., in armour and cloak. TRIPLICIS SPES TERTIA GENTIS. Copper. Size 1·75. Struck. By O. Hamerani.

The obverse legend expresses the hopes of the adherents of the Stuarts, that the Prince may not be prevented from restoring his family to their rights, and that on the reverse shews the relationship of Prince Henry, the third claimant to the triple kingdom.

315. Arrival of Younger Pretender expected, 1745. Obv. Head of Prince Charles r. CAROLUS WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. 1745. Rev. Britannia, with spear and shield, l., on shore watching 64 approach of fleet. AMOR ET SPES; in ex., BRITANNIA. Copper. Size 1·6. Struck.

This medal was probably struck in France, when Prince Charles was preparing for the invasion of 1745.

316. Visit of Prince Charles to England, 1752. Obv. Head of Prince Charles r. REDEAT MAGNUS ILLE GENIUS BRITANNIÆ. Rev. Similar to preceding. O DIU DESIDERATA NAVIS; in ex., LÆTAMINI CIVES. SEPT. XXIII. MDCCLII. Silver. Size 1·7. Struck.

Prince Charles secretly visited London in 1750, and again in 1752, when a scheme for another invasion was planned. These visits were known to the English court. This medal was struck by the partisans of the Prince in France.

317. Louisa, Countess of Stolberg, wife of Younger Pretender, 1772. Bust of Countess of Stolberg l., draped. Silver-Oval. Size 1·3. Cast and chased.

Prince Charles mar. by proxy at Paris, 28 Mar. 1772, Louisa dau. of Gustavus Adolphus, Prince of Stolberg-Goedern.

318–319. Henry (IX.), Duke of York, Cardinal, 1788. Obv. Bust of Prince Henry in cardinal's robes and skull cap. HEN. IX. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET HIB. REX FID. DEF. CARD. EP. TVSC. G. HAM. F. Rev. Religion holding Bible and cross; at her feet, British lion, &c., distant view of Rome. NON DESIDERIIS HOMINVM, SED VOLVNTATE DEI. AN. MDCCLXXXVIII. Silver and copper. Size 2·05. Struck. By G. Hamerani.20

On the death of the Younger Pretender in 1788 his brother Henry assumed the title of Henry IX., and caused this and other medals to be struck.

TOUCH-PIECES.

320. Charles II., 1661. Obv. Ship in full sail l. CAR. II. D. G. M. B. FR. ET HI. REX. Rev. St. Michael and the dragon. SOLI DEO GLORIA. Gold. Size .85. Struck.

When the king performed the ceremony of "touching" those, who were afflicted with scrofulous complaints, he put about the neck of each person a white ribbon with one of these pieces on it. 65

321. James II., 1685. Obv. Similar. IACO. II. D. G. M. B. &c. Rev. Similar. Gold. Size .75. Struck.

322. Another. Similar: ship r., and leg. varied on obverse. Silver. Size .75. Struck.

James II. was the first to strike these touch-pieces in silver.

323. James (III.), Elder Pretender, circ. 1710. Obv. Similar; type varied. IAC. III. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. R. Rev. Similar. Gold. Size .85. Struck.

This piece is of better work than those preceding. It was probably executed at Rome, when the Stuart family was residing in that city.

324. Henry (IX.), Duke of York, Cardinal, 1788. Obv. Similar. H. IX. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. R. C. EP. TVSC. Rev. Similar. Size .8. Struck.

The power of healing for the king's evil appears to have been claimed by all the Stuarts. It was abandoned by George I., who, on being applied to by a staunch adherent of the House of Hanover to touch his son, declined to do so, and referred the applicant to the Elder Pretender.

WILLIAM AND MARY. 1688–1695.

325. Expedition to England, 1688. Obv. William in Roman dress r., and Britannia wearing triple crown, joining hands over lighted altar: behind her, orange and rose trees intertwined, with shield of Britain; in the distance, flight of James II. and Father Petre carrying Prince with toy-windmill. DEO VINDICE IUSTITIA COMITE. R. A. F. Rev. Troops landing from boats in fortified harbour (Torbay); in the distance, fleet. CONTRA INFANTEM PERDITIONIS; in ex., EXPEDITIO NAUALIS PRO LIBERTATE ANGLIÆ. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

This medal commemorates the arrival of William of Orange at Torbay, the expedition being undertaken to defend the liberties of England against the Pope, who is here styled "the Son of Perdition." (See also No. 286.)21

326. Landing at Torbay, 1688. Obv. Bust of William r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS MAGNUS; on arm, I. L. 66 Rev. William standing on cliff and superintending the disembarkation of troops; near him, but with flag inscribed, FOR THES (sic) RELIGI. AND LIBERTY. Leg. GUIL. NAS. IN TORBAY BRIT. Silver. Size 1·8. By J. Luder.22

This medal was struck to commemorate the landing of William at Torbay, 5 Nov. 1688. The flag on the hut was that borne by the vessel in which William sailed.

327. Another. Obv. Bust of William r., in armour, scarf, &c.; on arm, 1688. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. PRIN. AVR. HOL. ET WES. GVB. G. B. F. Rev. Prince on horseback at head of army drawn up on seashore: in the distance, fleet; and in foreground, Mars supporting fainting Justice. TERRAS ASTRÆA REUISIT: on edge, NON RAPIT IMPERIUM UIS TUA SED RECIPIT. Silver. Size 1·9. By G. Bower.

This medal asserts that William restored justice to England, and that he did not seize the empire by violence, but was invited to accept it.

328. Arrival of William. Liberty restored to England, 1688. Obv. Britannia r., welcoming Belgia armed, bearing shield of William; in the distance, fleet. M. BRIT. EXP. NAV. BAT. LIB. REST. ASSERTA. Rev. Eagle r., casting gosling out of nest on rock, in which two eaglets remain: above, another eagle, watching fleet in the distance. INDIGNUM EIICIT. Orange-wreath. Silver. Size 2·3. Dutch.

Britain retained the two daughters of James II., Mary and Anne, but rejected the Prince, who was thought to be supposititious.

329. Destruction of Roman Catholic Chapels in London, 1688. Obv. Busts jugate r. of William, laur., and Mary, both draped. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D. G. ANG. FRA. ET HIB. REX ET REGINA FIDEI DEFENSORES, &c. G. B. F. Rev. Papal emblems burnt in Lincoln's Inn Fields; the west side is seen, with the Portuguese chapel in Duke Street in ruins. NEC LEX EST IUSTIOR ULLA. Silver. Size 2·05. By G. Bower.

The populace, enraged with the Roman Catholics, pulled down their houses and destroyed their chapels. The Lincoln's Inn Fields' chapel was burnt 10 Dec. 1688.

330. Flight of James and Declaration of Parliament, 1689. Obv. Bear, wearing rosary, stung by bees from three overturned hives. 67 POENA COMES SCELERIS; in ex., SIC LIBERTATEM RELIGIONEMQ. BRITANNI A SPOLIANTIBUS VINDICANT. MDCLXXXVIII. S. N. Rev. Bear wearing rosary and Jesuit's cap, driven by hands from heaven holding staff and cord with ring passing through his nose; in the distance, the Sorbonne. FORTEM VIS FORTIOR URGET; in ex., BRITANNIA A DUPLICI ARBITRAR. PAPALIQ. OPPRESSIONE LIBERATA. 1689. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

The bear on the obverse is James II., and the hives are the three kingdoms; whilst the sting of the bees is the vote of the House of Commons, 28 Jan. 1689, which excluded Roman Catholics from holding any office and declared the throne vacant. The reverse type is emblematic of the rejection of the authority of Rome by England.

331. Liberty and Religion restored to England, 1689. Obv. Bust of William r., laur., in armour and cloak. GUILLEL. III. D. G. PRINC. AURA. RELI. LIBER. QUE. RESTI. Rev. Ark of the Covenant, near which English and Dutch soldiers with shields of their countries praying, and on the other side French and Irish soldiers dispersed by lightnings and by warrior in clouds armed with shield of Nassau and thunderbolt, above whom, EMANUEL; in foreground, flight of Father Petre with Romanist insignia and the Pope carrying young Prince. Silver. Size 2·1. By J. Luder.

This medal was probably executed in 1689, a little before William's coronation. The French king had espoused the cause of James, and Ireland was already in a state of revolt against the Protestants, the civil and military power having been placed by James in the hands of the Roman Catholics.

332. Coronation, 1689. Obv. Busts jugate r. of King, laur., and Queen, both draped. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D. G. ANG. FRA. &c. G. B. F. Rev. Perseus delivering Andromeda. PRETIVMQ. ET CAVSA LABORIS. 1689. Gold. Size 1·45. By G. Bower.

William and Mary were crowned 11 April, 1689. William is represented as Perseus and England as Andromeda.

333. Another. Obv. Similar. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA REX ET REGINA. Rev. Jupiter in clouds hurling thunderbolt against Phaethon, who falls from his chariot; earth in flames. NE TOTVS ABSVMATVR; in ex., INAVGVRAT. 11 AP. 1689. Gold. Size 1·45. By G. Bower.

Phaethon typifies James, who, unable to manage the reins 68 of the government, is displaced, that "the whole empire may not be destroyed."

334. Another. Obv. Heads jugate r. of King and Queen, laur. GULIELM. R. MARIA REGINA F. D. P. A. I. S. Rev. Papal emblems destroyed by lightning. HÆC SUMMA DIES; in ex., INAVGUR. MAIEST. 11/21 APR. 1689. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.

Commemorative of the coronation of William and Mary, as destructive of Papal power in England.

335. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Eagle on rock casting young bird out of nest, in which remain two eaglets; midday sun, and fleet in the distance. NON PATITUR SUPPOSITITIOS; in ex., IURE REGNI VINDIC. MDCLXXXIX. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing. (See also No. 328.)

336. Another. Obv. Bust of King r. laur., draped. WILH. III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c. G. H. Rev. Bust of Queen l., draped, wearing necklace, &c. MARIA D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c.; on edge, CORONAT. WEST-MONAST. D. XI. APRIL. ANNO MDCLXXXIX. Silver. Size 1·55.

By G. Hautsch, who was a native of Nuremberg, but worked in Cologne as well as in Holland. He died circ. 1711.

337. Another. Obv. Busts jugate r. of King, laur., in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. G. B. F. Rev. Archbishop and bishop supporting crown over heads of King and Queen, seated beneath canopy, each holding sceptre and orb; beneath, 1689. IDOLOLATRIA SERVITVTE PROFLIGATIS RELIGIONE LEGIB. LIBERTAT. RESTITVTIS. Silver. Size 2·15. By G. Bower.

This medal is the official coronation-medal of William and Mary. It was struck in gold and presented to those who had taken part in the ceremony.

338. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., wearing breastplate with name of Jehovah in Hebrew. WILHELMVs TERTIVs ANGLIÆ VINDEX (chronogrammatic). I. S. (monogram) FECIT. Rev. King crowned and holding sceptre and orb, kneeling facing on globe and looking l. towards Eye of Providence in clouds. DEO JUDICE; in ex., PRÆSAGIUM ARAUSIONENSE. 1665. MAG. BRITANNIA IMPLEVIT 11/21 APRIL. 1689. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Smeltzing.

The reverse alludes to an extraordinary prodigy, which happened on 6 May, 1665. The Parliament and 69 people of Orange being assembled in the Circus to hear a proclamation from the Prince upon their delivery from the oppressions of France, a crown was seen to form itself gradually in the air, and to settle immediately over the throne which had been prepared for the Prince. This phenomenon was witnessed by over 8000 persons.

339. Another. Obv. Busts jugate r. of King, in armour, and Queen draped, both laur. GULIELM. REX MARIA REGINA F. D. P. A. I. SMELTZING. Rev. Orange tree intertwined with rose and thistle, and bearing shield, arms of Britain; on either side, are James and Father Petre, driven out in different directions by lightning from clouds, each accompanied by snake of discord. James drops his crown and sceptre, and Father Petre carries infant Prince with toy-windmill and pyx; above, ITE MISSA EST; in ex., INAUGURATIS MAIESTATIBUS. EIECTO PAPATU. EXPULSA TYRANNIDE. BRITANNIA FELIX. 1689. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

ITE MISSA EST are the words used in the Church of Rome at the dismissal of the communicants after the celebration of the Mass. They here refer to the dismissal of James and the Roman Catholics. (See also No. 286.)

340. Another. Obv. Busts jugate r. crowned of King, in armour, and Queen draped. GVLIELM. ET MARIA D. G. M. B. F. &c. Rev. Belgic lion resting one foot on Bible, and with the other trampling on serpent; on ground, prostrate column inscribed, MAG. CART.; fleet approaching TORBAY; above, BRITANNIA. IN TVITIONEM RELIG. PROTES. Silver. Size 1·7. Dutch.

The reverse symbolises Holland defending the Protestant religion and the Magna Charta of England, and indicates the arrival of William as the means employed for that purpose.

341. Another. Obv. Busts, face to face, of King laur., in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. MAIUS PAR NOBILE SCEPTRIS; in ex., G. HENR. ET MAR. PR. AUR. M. BRIT. R. 1689. Rev. Britannia welcoming Belgia; same as obverse type of No. 328. Silver. Size 2·3. Dutch.

342. Another. Festival at Amsterdam, 1689. Obv. King and Queen seated facing, crowned, and in royal robes: each holds sceptre and orb. GVILHELMVS ET MARIA REX ET REGINA. CORON. APR. 11/21 1689. Rev. The Captain, Lieutenant, and Ensign of the City Guard of Amsterdam standing facing; above, arms of city; around, inscription in Dutch, stating that "on the day of the coronation the guard was kept by the 70 company of Barnard Muikens." Silver. Size 2·35. Cast and chased. Dutch.

During the celebration of the coronation festivities at Amsterdam, the protection of that city was committed to the company of the City Guard under the command of Capt. Barnard Muikens, Lieut. John Althusius, and Ensign Sylvester van Tongeren.

343. Peace restored to Britain, 1689. Obv. Busts jugate r. of King, laur. and in armour, and Queen draped. GVILIELMVS ET MARIA REX ET REGINA BRITANNIÆ. P. H. M. Rev. Britannia holding scales and cross, cap of Liberty on pole and cornucopiae, seated beside prow of ship, beneath rose and orange trees intertwined within crown. AVREA FLORIGERIS SUCCRESCUNT POMA ROSETIS; in ex., SECURITAS BRITANNIÆ RESTITUTA. 1689. P. H. M.; on edge, EXTERNO MALE PRESSA IUGO BRITANNIA PRIDEM IN PRISCAS ITERUM RESPIRAT LIBERA LEGES. (F. K.) Silver. Size 2·15. By P. H. Müller.23

This medal represents England at peace, reposing under the protection of William and Mary, symbolised by the rose and orange trees.

One of the series of medals issued at Nuremberg by F. Kleinert and K. G. Lauffer, the Chief Warden of the Mint of that city. In this work a large number of foreign as well as native medallists was employed.

344. William and Mary, 1689. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. B. K. (monogram) F. Rev. Bust of Queen l., draped. MARIA D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

Probably struck in Holland about the time of the coronation. Jan Boskam, the artist, executed a large number of medals for William. He subsequently worked at Berlin, where from information supplied by his medals he was still residing in 1705.

345. Another. Obv. Similar; type varied; bust not laur. GVLIELMVS D. G. ANGLOR. SCOT. FRANC. &c. Rev. Similar; type varied. MARIA D. G. ANGLOR. SCOTOR. FRANCOR. &c. Silver. Size 2·45. Dutch.

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346. Fortunes of Rebellion, 1689. Obv. Hydra, one head crowned, trampling on sword and scales. NUMERO NON IURE VALEBAT; below, ANNO NOVI DOMINI PRIMO. Rev. Female figure, with two heads, standing on globe perforated by serpent: one side of figure, with boar's head, holds axe and looks towards the Tower, dated 1684; the other, with human face (William), holds crown and looks towards Whitehall, dated 1689. ILLE CRUCEM, HIC DIADEMA TULIT. Silver. Size 1·9. Dutch.

The Hydra represents the promoters of revolution trampling on Justice and authority. On the reverse are compared the fates of Monmouth and William: the former executed in 1684; the latter crowned in 1689. A boar's head langued is the crest of the Argyll family.

347. Toleration Act, 1689. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS REX ANGL. SCOT. FRANC. ET HYBERN. PATRIÆ DECVS ANGLIÆ PRÆSIDIVM. P. H. M. Rev. Britannia crowned and trampling on chains, grasping r. hand of William, and accompanied by Religion with Bible and cross, and Liberty with scroll, inscribed Test, &c.; near William, Belgic lion. TE SERVATORE NON SERVIMVS; in ex., RESTITUTORI BRITANNIÆ. 1689; on edge, REGIA, CREDE MIHI, RES EST, SUCCURRERE LAPSIS. (F. K.) Silver. Size, 1·9. By P. H. Müller.

Executed at Nuremberg to commemorate the passing of the Toleration Act, 24 May, 1689, establishing a complete freedom of worship in England to all religious sects except the Roman Catholic. (See also No. 343.)

348. Rebellion in Ireland. Relief of Londonderry, &c., 1689. Obv. On pedestal, bust of William r., crowned by Pallas and Plenty; distant view of Londonderry and ships advancing to relief of city: pedestal inscribed, WILHELM. MAXIMUS IN BELGICA LIBERATOR IN BRITANNIA RESTAURATOR. Lib: Londonderry 1689. Rev. On pedestal, bust of Louis XIV., crowned by Gallia and Germany, who holds burning city: in the distance, towns besieged: pedestal inscribed, LUDOVIC. MAGNUS IN GERMANIA BARBARUS IN GALLIA TYRANNUS. Obs. Mogunt. et bona. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Boskam.

Commemorative of the relief of Londonderry, July 1689, and the loss to Louis XIV. in the same year of the cities of Mayence and Bonn.

349. Another. Danish Auxiliaries, 1689. Obv. Fleet at sea. B. M. Rev. A CHRISTIANO V. MISSVM WILHELMO III. AVXILIVM VII.M. MILITVM. MDCLXXXIX. B. M. Silver. Size, 1·7. By B. Meier.

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Commemorative of a compact, 25 Aug. 1689, between William and Christian V. of Denmark, by which the latter agreed to furnish William with 6000 foot and 1000 horse, who were to receive the same pay as like soldiers of the English army. These were despatched to Ireland and rendered good service to William. This medal was executed in Denmark by Barthold Meier, the chief medallist of Christian V.

350. William called to Ireland, 1690. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. IAN LUDER FECIT. Rev. Neptune rising from sea, and Ireland with nymph on rock supplicating Jupiter to overthrow Phaethon. NISI TU QUIS TEMPERET IGNES. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

William, in consequence of earnest petitions, left London 4 June, 1690, to take the chief command of the army in Ireland to oppose James.

351. Departure of William for Ireland, 1690. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in cloak. GULIELM. III. D. G. BRIT. REX, &c. I. S. Rev. Eagle flying towards land, bearing olive and orange branches and sceptre, fleet approaching shore. ALIS NON ARMIS; in ex., TRAIECTUS IN HIBERNI. LOND. 4/14 IUN. 1690. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

William landed at Belfast 14 June, 1690, with a small but well-disciplined army.

352–353. Mary, Regent, 1690. Obv. Bust of Queen r., draped. MARIA II. D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. Rev. Full moon above landscape. EX NOCTE DIEM. Silver and copper. Size 1·9. By J. Croker.24

On 7 May, 1690, Parliament passed the Regency Bill, providing that whenever William should go out of England, it should be lawful for Mary to administer the affairs of the kingdom in his name and her own.

354. Another, and Action off Beachy Head, 1690. Obv. Heads of King and Queen jugate r., laur. GULIELM. R. MARIA REGINA F. D. P. A. I. S. Rev. Mary l., crowned 73 and holding trident and cornucopiae: in the distance, ships under repair and prisoner conducted to the Tower. DISSIPAT ET REFICIT; in ex., REGINÆ REGENTI. MDCXC. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.

This medal was struck after the battle off Beachy Head, 10 July, 1690, when Mary ordered the repairing and refitting of the English and Dutch fleets, and committed Admiral Lord Torrington to the Tower. (See next medal.)

355. Another. Obv. Bust of Louis XIV. r., in armour and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS LVDOVICVS MAGNVS. Rev. Naval engagement; in front, Louis XIV., as Neptune, in naval chariot, brandishing trident; on car, I. S. (monogram). MATVRATE FVGAM: ILLI IMPERIVM PELAGI. (cf. Virg. Aen. i. 141–142); in ex., PVGNA AD BEVES ANG. BAT. Q. VNA FVG. D. X. IVL. 1690. Silver. Size 2·85. French.

Commemorative of the naval action off Beachy Head, 10 July, 1690, in which the combined English and Dutch fleets under Admiral Lord Torrington were defeated by the French under Tourville. For this defeat Lord Torrington was committed to the Tower; but with a severe censure acquitted.

356. Battle of the Boyne, 1690. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. IAN LUDER FECIT. Rev. Bellona, with spear and shield, watching battle in the distance; cavalry pursuing enemy; to r., city, above which DVBLINS VICTIS AC FVGATIS HIBERNIS. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

Commemorative of the battle of the Boyne, 11 July, 1690. The cavalry charge represented on the reverse was led by William himself and decided the fate of the engagement.

357. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. King on horseback l., commanding; in background, battle. IACOB (James II.) and LAUSUN are fleeing. WALKER dead in the midst of the fight on one side, and SCHOMBERG dead on the field on the other. APPARUIT ET DISSIPAVIT; in ex., LIBERATA HIBERNIA. MDCLXXXX. I. LUDER FECIT. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

Incidents of the battle of the Boyne. Lausun commanded the French auxiliaries, and when he saw the day was lost counselled James to fly. Marshal Schomberg, and Walker the defender of Londonderry, were both killed.

358. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILH. III. D. G. MAG. BRI. FRAN. &c. R. A. F. Rev. William on horseback r., fording river at the head of his cavalry; 74 enemy flying. ET VULNERA ET INVIA SPERNIT; in ex., EIICIT IACOBUM; RESTITUIT HIBERNIAM. MDCXC. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

This medal commemorates William's charge at the head of his cavalry: in the attack he had to ford the river Boyne, which was deep and dangerous.

359. Entry of William into Dublin, &c., 1690. Obv. King on horseback l., commanding at battle, &c.; same as reverse of No. 357. Rev. King standing r., near tripod, and presenting cap of Liberty to Hibernia, kneeling; in the distance, James flying, &c. FOCOS SERVAVIT ET ARAS; in ex., EXPULS. GAL. ET REBEL. DUBLIN. TRIUMPHANS INTRAVIT. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

Commemorative of William's triumphal entry into Dublin after the battle of the Boyne, 16 July, 1690. This medal, by calling the Irish rebels, gave great offence even to the partisans of William.

360. Flight of James II. from Ireland, 1690. Obv. Bust of James l., draped, with bag-wig. IACOBUS II. BRITAN. REX FUGITIV. Rev. Stag with winged feet running l., and looking back. PEDIBUS TIMOR ADDIDIT ALAS. (Virg. Aen. viii. 224); in ex., FUGIT EX HIBERNIA. D. 12. IULII. 1690. S. N. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

From the field of the battle of the Boyne, James fled first to Dublin, and from thence to Waterford and Kinsale, where he embarked for France.

361–362. Amnesty in Ireland, 1690. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., draped. WILH. III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c. G. H. Rev. King, crowned by Victory, presents olive-branch to Hibernia kneeling. HIBERNIA RESTITVTA. MDCXC; on edge, ARMIS IVNGIT AMOR NVNC TERTIA REGNA DVOBVS. Silver-gilt and silver. Size 1·55. By G. Hautsch.

Commemorative of the declaration of amnesty, which William issued upon his arrival in Dublin.

363. Mary Regent, 1691. Obv. Heads jugate r., of King and Queen laur. GULIELM. R. MARIA REGINA. F. D. P. A. I. S. Rev. Lioness l., trampling on snakes, near cave occupied by three cubs; lion departing. TE ABSENTE TUEBOR; in ex., REGI REDUCI. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.

In Jan. 1691 William quitted England for Holland, leaving the Queen Regent. The three kingdoms are represented by the cubs. 75

364. William's Return to Holland, 1691. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GULIELM. III. D. G. BRIT. R. AR. PR. BELG. GUB. J. S. (monogram). Rev. Sun rising on coast of Holland; sea covered with shipping. RECREO DUM REDEO. MDCXCI. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Smeltzing.

William's return to Holland revived the spirit of the Dutch.

365. Return to Holland and Rejoicings at the Hague, 1691. Obv. King and suite in open boat r.; horseman approaching it. QUID METUAS CÆSAREM VEHIS; in ex., REGI GUILHELMO PER GLACIEM NUBILA ET SYRTES REDUCI. Rev. Belgia and Muse witnessing fireworks; in the distance, triumphal arch, &c. IO TRIUMPHE; in ex., D. F. A. REGE RECCRTO (sic) 5 febr. 1691. D. KOENE. Silver. Size 1·8. By D. Koene.

After a very stormy passage, William landed on the coast of Holland in an open boat. On approaching the shore, a countryman rode into the water to inquire who they were, but the horseman, being an old servant of the King, at once recognised his master. Great rejoicings and displays of fireworks took place upon William's entry into the Hague.

366. Triumphal Entry into the Hague, 1691. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. MAGNUS FID. STAT. Rev. Triumphal arch, with semicircular advancing wings, enclosing two obelisks. REG. GUILELMO ET ATAVIS PRINC.; in ex., TRIUMFHOS (sic) REGIOS ET PATRIOS, &c. COSS. HAGIENSES IN FORO POSUERUNT. M.S. Silver. Size 2·85. By M. Smeltzing.

This triumphal arch was erected in the market-place at the Hague. Martin Smeltzing was the younger brother of J. Smeltzing. He lived at Amsterdam, and executed medals for William III. of England, Charles III. of Spain, and Augustus II. of Poland.

367. William III. and Louis XIV. contrasted, 1691. Obv. William in Roman dress, holding sword and standard with Christian monogram and cap of Liberty resting on globe: on l., shields of England, Scotland, and Ireland, arms, &c.; on r., harpies flying. HIS ARMIS TRIA REGNA PARAT; in ex., GUILELMUS III. LIBERATOR FLORENS. Rev. Louis XIV. in Roman dress, decrepit, leaning on sword composed of coins, which rests on bomb-shell; above, lightnings; in the distance, Mons in flames and state carriage of Louis, followed by women. 76 UNAM SIC OCCUPAT URBEM; in ex., LUDOVICUS XIIII. OPPRESSOR DECREPITUS. Silver. Size 2·05. Dutch.

William is represented as the successful protector of Religion and Liberty, and as expelling the Harpies of Discord from the British Isles; Louis as a decrepit oppressor, leaning on the emblems of bribery, returning from Mons, and followed by his mistresses. Louis is said to have obtained possession of Mons by bribery.

368. Congress of the Allies, 1691. Obv. Jupiter seated in the midst of the Gods, in council. INGENTES ANIMO DIGNAS IOVE CONCIPIT IRAS CONCILIUMQVE VOCAT; in ex., CONVENTUS FOEDERAT. PRINCIP. PRÆSIDE GUILIELMO III. R. BRIT. HAGÆ COMIT. CELEBR. 1691. P. H. M. Rev. Mars and Concordia joining hands over lighted altar, inscribed SAL. PVBL.; behind, Salus. CONSILIO CONCORDIA ET FORTITVDINE. P. H. M.; on edge, reX regVM ConsVLta DeVs fortVnet VbIqVe (chronogrammatic). F. K. Silver. Size 1·95. By P. H. Müller.

During William's visit to Holland a congress of Princes of the chief States of Germany was held at the Hague, to arrange plans for resisting France. William presided at the meetings. (See No. 343.)

369. Rebellion in Ireland: Battle of Aghrim, 1691. Obv. Busts jugate r., laur., of King in armour and cloak, and of Queen draped. GULI. ET MARIA D. G. M. BRIT. FR. &c. I. SMELTZING. F. Rev. Battle-scene, cavalry engaged. HIBERNIS GALLISQ. DEVICTIS; below, on pedestal, PUGNA AD AGHRIM. XXII. IUL. MDCXCI. S. N. Silver. Size 2·2. By J. Smeltzing.

On 22 July, 1691, General Ginckel attacked and defeated the Irish and French troops under St. Ruth near the Castle of Aghrim. St. Ruth was among the slain.

370. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. WILHEM. (sic) III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FRANC. &c. F. D. W. N. C. A. P. Rev. Lion r., trampling on prostrate dog, and clawing fugitive cock. SIC UNO FERIT UNGUE DUOS; in ex., IACOBO ET LUDOVICO HIBERNIA PVLSIS AD AGRIM. 1691. Silver. Size 2. By F. D. Winter.

The Lion (England) overthrows the Irish dog and drives from Ireland the French cock, much damaged.

This medal is the work of F. D. Winter, who was one of the engravers of the Mint during the reign of William, for whom he executed several medals. The letters 77 N. C. A. P. may be the initial letters of Neale Custos Artifex Primus, the chief official of the Mint receiving the titles of Master and Worker. This office was filled by Thomas Neale from 1688–1698.

371. Taking of Athlone, Galway, and Sligo, 1691. Obv. Busts jugate r., laur., of King in armour, and Queen draped. GULIELM. REX MARIA REGINA. F. D. P. A. I. SMELTZING. Rev. Shield of Ireland and three medallions murally crowned, &c., of ATHLON. XXX. IUN: X. IUL.; GALLOWAY D. XXVI. IUL: V. AUG.; SLEGO D. XV. XXV. SEPT., all attached to lance, surmounted by cap of Liberty. ARMIS NOMINISQ. TERRORE; in ex., MDCXCI. Silver. Size 1·95. By J. Smeltzing.

This medal commemorates the successful sieges of Athlone, Galway, and Sligo, all three cities falling into the hands of General Ginckel, who commanded for William in Ireland. The double dates are of the old and new styles.

372. Taking of Limerick, 1691. Obv. Busts of King and Queen jugate r., laur., same as No. 369. Rev. Fame flying r., bearing wreath, palm, and mural crown; on ground, cannon, flags, &c.; in the distance, Limerick bombarded. NON HÆC SINE NUMINE DIVUM. (Virg. Aen. ii. 777); in ex., LIMR. CAPT. HIB. SUBACT. M. OCT. MDCXCI. Silver. Size 2·2. By J. Smeltzing.

The surrender of Sligo was followed by that of Limerick, 2 Oct. 1791, after a siege of nearly a month.

373. Suppression of Rebellion in Ireland, 1691. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. IAN LUDER FECIT. Rev. Hercules destroying the Hydra. FOECUNDAM VETUIT REPARARI MORTIBUS HYDRAM. Silver. Size 2·8. By J. Luder.

After the battle of the Boyne one stronghold after another fell so fast into the hands of William and his generals, that before the end of the year Ireland was subdued. William is here likened to Hercules, who destroyed the heads of the Hydra so rapidly that they could not recover themselves.

374. Pacification of Ireland, 1691. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., draped. WILH. III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c. G. H. Rev. Fame flying r., accompanied by genii bearing six shields, with plans or views of the captured cities, WATERFORT, ATHLONE, LIMRICH, KINSAL, LONDONDERY, and 78 GALOWAY; beneath, William commanding at a battle; beyond, views of DROGHEDA and DVBLIN; in ex., RESTITVTORI HIBERNIÆ. MDCXCI; on edge, ANNORVM GESTA DVORVM CERNIS QVID PLVRES FACIENT. Silver. Size 1·6. By G. Hautsch.

The Pacification of Limerick, which immediately followed the surrender of that city, terminated the Irish war.

375. Another. Obv. Busts jugate r., laur., of King, in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GULI. ET MARIA D. G. M. BRIT. FR. &c. D. Trapentier f. Rev. Lion l., trampling on Hydra; spaniel fawning at feet of lioness; distant view of city, and sea with ships. PARCERE SVBIECTIS ET DEBELLARE SVPERBOS. (Virg. Aen. vi. 854); in ex., HIB. PACATA CI??CXCI; on edge, ET REGNARE PARES ET MIRÈ SE INTER AMARE. Gold. Size 2·1. By D. Trapentier.

This medal alludes to the attitude of the Jacobite party in England and Ireland; the lion and lioness representing the King and Queen. It was executed in Holland by D. Trapentier or Drapentier, who resided chiefly at Dordrecht.

376. William's throne established, 1691. Obv. England, Scotland, Ireland, and Orange, the two first crossing sceptres, standing around obelisk, decorated with medallion of William and crowned shield, arms of King. GUILEL. IIII. (sic) REGN. R. Rev. King in Roman dress, holding out sword, from the handle of which are suspended four crowns. QUATUOR EX UNO. Silver. Size 1·8. Dutch.

Commemorative of the conclusion of the war in Ireland, when William's sword established his dominion over the three kingdoms, and the Principality of Orange.

377. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak; above, rays; beneath, shield, arms of William, with supporters, crowned between laurel-branches. WILHELMUS III. D. G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERAT. D. K. Rev. Four warriors, England, Scotland, Ireland, and Holland, defending orange-tree; defeated enemies flying, and distant fleets engaged. CAUSA DEI EST; on edge, REGNA MARI TERRAQUE TEGIT TEGITURQUE VICISSIM. Silver. Size 1·45. By D. Koene.

Tranquillity being secured in Ireland, the power of William was now supported by the four countries protecting the orange-tree.

378. Literary Prize-medal, 1691. Obv. Busts jugate r., of King, laur., in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GVL. & MARIA 79 D. G. M. BR. FR. &c. D. DRAP. Rev. King in Roman dress, seated, holding labarum; before him, Minerva, presenting medals to poets; behind, Fame, with shield inscr., EXP. BRIT.; in the background, rostral column. LIBERAL. REG. IN ERUDITOS; on edge, GLORIA ET FELICITAS NOVI SÆCULI. Gold. Size 1·8. By D. Trapentier.

These medals were presented by William to the poets, who distinguished themselves in celebrating the expedition to Britain.

379. War with France: Battle of La Hogue, 1692. Obv. Busts of King and Queen jugate r., laur., same as No. 369. Rev. Naval action, French ship sinking. ASSERTA MARIS IMPERII GLORIA; in ex., GALLORUM CLASSE DELETA D. XIX. XXIX. MAJI. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 2·2. By J. Smeltzing.

The battle of La Hogue extended over five days, 19–24 May, 1692. Admirals Russell and Almonde commanded the combined English and Dutch fleets, and Admiral Tourville the French. In this action the French fleet was utterly defeated. Few ships were taken; but those which fled were pursued into their ports and completely destroyed.

380. Another. Obv. Busts jugate r., of King, laur., in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GULI. ET MARIA. D. G. M. BRIT. FR. &c. R. ARONDEAUX F. Rev. Warrior l., holding trident surmounted by wreath, and leaning on shield bearing united hands; he is seated on lion and unicorn; shield of France lying at his feet; naval action in the distance. GALLIS OCEANO EXPULSIS A CLASSE BRITANNO-BATAVICA. MDCXCII. Gold. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

381. Another. Obv. Admirals Russell and Almonde in naval car r., inscribed with their names, one holding trident with broom attached, the other, sword; in the distance, view of BARFLEUR, naval action, and LOUIS XIIII, with trident escaping on sea-shell drawn by frogs. PSEUDO NEPTUNO MARI EIECTO. Rev. Same as preceding medal. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

The English and Dutch admirals are here represented as sweeping Louis XIV. and his fleet off the sea.

382. Another. Obv. Similar to preceding; view of Barfleur omitted and Louis dropping his trident. DIVUMQ. SIBI POSCEBAT HONOREM. (Virg. Aen. vi. 589); in ex., PSEUDO NEPT. OCEAN. EXP. PUGN. AD BARFL. MDCXCII. Rev. The blowing up of "Le Soleil Royal;" on stern of it, Sun and NEC PLURIB. IMP. Leg. NVNC PLVRIBVS IMPAR; in ex., BRIT. BATQ. VIRTVTE. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 1·4. By R. Arondeaux.

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The "Soleil Royal," so called because it was decorated with the emblem and motto of Louis XIV., bore Admiral Tourville's flag at the battle of La Hogue; it was so much damaged in the engagement that it was run on shore at Cherbourg and afterwards burnt to the water by Admiral Delaval. It was the finest war-ship in Europe. The reverse legend is a retort upon Louis's motto NEC PLVRIBVS IMPAR.

383. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRITT. FR. &c. B. K. (monogram) F. Rev. Naval action; in foreground, French cock flying before lion and unicorn. IMPERIVM PELAGI NOBIS; in ex., INCENSA GALL. CLASSE ANG. ET BAT. VICTORES. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 2·1. By J. Boskam.

This medal is a retort upon Louis XIV., who in July 1690, after the battle off Beachy Head, claimed the empire of the sea. (See No. 355.)

384. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. GULIELMUS III. D. G. M. BRIT. FRANC. &c. Rev. Neptune l. in car, striking with his trident one who has assumed his appearance and equipage. SIMILI POENA COMMISSA LUUNTUR. (cf. Virg. Aen. i. 140); in ex., MIHI SORTE DATUM. (Virg. Aen. i. 143.) Silver. Size 2·85. By J. Luder.

William is here represented as Neptune, punishing Louis, who had claimed the empire of the sea.

385. Taking of Namur by the French, 1692. Obv. Bust of Louis XIV. r., laur., in armour and cloak. LVDOVICVS MAGN. GALL. REX PIVS AVG. S. Rev. Louis XIV. on horseback r., accompanied by his staff, receiving the surrender of the garrison of Namur; city and army of the Allies in the distance. AMAT VICTORIA TESTES; in ex., NAMVRCVM EXPVGNAT. SPECTANTE AVRIACO ET BAVARO CVM CENT. ARMATOR. MILLIB. XXX. IVN. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 2·35. French.

Namur surrendered to Louis XIV. 30 June, 1692, in the sight of William and the Duke of Bavaria, who arrived at the head of an army of 100,000 men too late to relieve the city. This medal is one of the historical series of Louis XIV. (See No. 401.)

386. Battle of Steinkirk, 1692. Obv. Bust of Louis XIV. r., laur., in armour and cloak. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS REX CHRISTIANISS. R. Rev. French soldier striking prostrate foe, whom he holds by cravat amid standards, &c. on field of battle. VIRTVS PEDITVM FRANCORVM; in cx., PVGNA AD 81 STENKERCAM. MDCLXXXXII. MOLART F. Copper. Size 2·85. By Joseph Roettier and Molart.

On 3 August, 1692, by means of false information, William hoped to surprise the French under Luxembourg and to drive them from their position at Steinkirk. The project miscarried chiefly through the misconduct of Count Solmes, who failed to support the English guards, and the Allies were compelled to retreat with the loss of 7000 men.

387. Execution of Grandval, 1692. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. B. K. (monogram) F. Rev. Monument, on which executioner gives the coup de grâce to malefactor; on either side, poles and gallows with quarters and head of offender: monument inscribed, BARTHELEMI DE GRAND VAL. AVRO LVDOVICÆO PERCVSSOR EMTVS GVILELM. III. M. BRIT. REGVM (sic) FRVSTRA PERFODER. CONATUS, &c.; in ex., XIII. AVG. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

Grandval, a French captain of dragoons, was engaged to shoot William with the knowledge and sanction of James and Louis. He was caught in the camp of the Allies and executed.

388. Battle of Landen, 1693. Obv. Same. Rev. Falcon pouncing upon a heron, who receives it upon its beak: in the distance, view of towns and battle. FORTI SIC VICTOR VINCITVR ART.; in ex., XXIX. IVL. MDCXCIII. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Boskam.

The heron when hard-pressed receives the falcon on its beak: so William, attacked by Luxembourg at Landen, resisted the onslaught so successfully that although victorious the French general was compelled to abandon the original plan of the campaign.

389. Another. Obv. Bust of Louis XIV. r., in armour and cloak. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS REX CHRISTIANISSIMVS. R. Rev. Trophy of flags and arms, surmounted by laurel-wreath. CAESA HOST. XX. MILL. TORMENTA BELL. CAPT. LXXVI. SIGNA RELATA XC.; in ex., DE FOEDERATIS AD NERVINDAM. MDCXCIII. MOLART F. Copper. Size 2·7. By Joseph Roettier and Molart.

The French commemorative medal of the battle of Landen.

390. Defeats of William, 1693. Obv. Bust of King l., in bag-wig, wearing armour. GVLIELMVS III. D. G. BRITANN REX. 82 Rev. Arm from heaven, sleeve ornamented with fleurs de lis, beating drum; horsemen flying l. MON SORT EST D'ESTRE BATTV. Silver. Size 1·9. Dutch.

Satirical of the defeats of William at Namur, Steinkirk, Landen, &c. The headdress (bag-wig) of William is similar to that of the portraits of James II., on medals recording his flight. (See No. 360.)

391. Expedition to Brest, 1694. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. J. MAVGER F. Rev. Minerva armed, facing, head r., on seashore; to left, naval trophy. CUSTOS ORAE AREMORICAE; in ex., BATAV. ET ANGL. AD LITTUS AREMORICUM CAESIS. MDCXCIV. Silver. Size 1·6. By J. Mauger.

Commemorative of the failure of the attempt upon the coast of France, near Brest, under Admiral Earl of Berkeley and General Talmash, in June 1694. The plan of the expedition was revealed to James by Marlborough and Godolphin. This medal is one of the historical series of Louis XIV.

392. Prince of Baden in London, and Bombardment of Dieppe, 1694. Obv. William l., receiving Prince of Baden at his palace-gates: in foreground, Silence seated r., near shields of Germany and England, surmounted by cap of Liberty. REC. P. BADENS. LOND.; in ex., IUNXIT LIBERTAS AUXIT SECRETUM. X. IAN. MDCXCIV. Rev. Neptune in sea-chariot l. before Dieppe, bombarded by fleet. ET PROXIMVS ARDET VCALEGON. (Virg. Aen. ii. 311); in ex., DIEPPA AB ANGLIS & HOLLANDIS INCENTA. D. XXII. XXIII. IVL. 1694. Silver. Size 2. By J. Boskam.

In order to counteract the intrigues of Louis XIV., the Emperor of Germany sent the Prince of Baden to England, Jan. 1694, to take counsel with William. In July 1694 Dieppe was bombarded by the combined English and Dutch fleets. This medal is composed of the reverses of two separate medals.

393. Bombardment of Havre, 1694. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. WILHELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. I. BOSKAM F. Rev. Bull of Perillus being heated over flames; in the distance, Havre burning and boats advancing. SVIS PERIT IGNIBVS AVCTOR; in ex., PORTVS GRATIÆ EXVSTVS ET EVERSVS BOMBARD. ANGLO. BATAV. MDCXCIIII. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

Havre was bombarded by the English and Dutch fleets from 26 to 28 July, 1694. The bombardment of this and 83 other places, in retaliation for that of Genoa, Charleroy, and Liège by the French, is compared to the destruction of Perillus, who perished in his own brazen bull, which he had invented for the burning of the victims of Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum.

394. Bombardment of Dunkirk, &c., 1694. Obv. King in Roman dress r., holding thunderbolt. IOVI TONANTI; in ex., GUILIELMO III. D. G. M. BRITANN. REGI. Rev. Ships bombarding towns on sea-coast; above, sun. URBES ASPICIT ACCENSAS, NEC TANTOS SUSTINET ÆSTUS. (cf. Ovid. Met. ii. 228); in ex., VIBRATA IN MARITIMAS GALLIÆ URBES FULMINA. 1694. Gold Size 1·7.

This medal records the bombardment of Dunkirk, Calais, and other places on the French coast, by the English fleet under Sir Cloudesley Shovel, in Sept. 1694.

395. Huy taken, 1694. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. Rev. Duke of Holstein on horseback l., commanding at siege of Huy. FVGITE HINC TESTES A LIMINE BELLI; in ex., HVYA CVM ARCE ET FORT. PICARD. ET RVBEO EXP. A. D. HOLSAT. PLEVN D. EXERC. FOED. XXVIII. SEPT. MDCXCIIII. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Boskam.

The capitulation of Huy (Belgium), 28 Sep. 1694, was followed by the capture of the Picart and Red Forts. The Duke of Holstein Pleun commanded at the siege.

396. Death of Mary, 1695. Obv. Bust of Queen r., draped, wearing tiara. MARIA II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. I. BOSKAM F. Rev. Monument, on which are seated the three Fates, decorated with medallion of Queen and reliefs representing funeral procession. VNICA DIGNA DEO; in ex., VIVIT POST FVNERA VIRTVS. MDCXCV. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Boskam.

Mary died on the 7th Jan. 1695.

397. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Monument of two small obelisks and larger one in centre, decorated with medallion of Queen, inscription, &c.; pedestal ornamented with reliefs representing sacrifice. COELITVS DATA. COELITVS RECEPTA. MDCXCV. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

398. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Unicorn springing r., up steep rock; beneath, dead snake, scorpion, toads, &c. EX OCVLIS EREPTA POST DELETA VENENA; in ex., MARIA ORBIS BRITANNICI DELICIAE ET SOLATIVM DESIDERATA. VII. IAN. MDCXCV. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

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The apotheosis of Mary is represented under the form of a unicorn springing up to heaven. This animal, by thrusting its horn into the water which it was about to drink, was supposed to destroy all venomous and noxious matter.

399. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen r., draped, wearing tiara, &c. MARIA D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. R. ARONDEAUX F. Rev. Queen lying in state; King seated at foot of couch weeping, surrounded by bishops and nobles. POPULIS LIBERATIS EREPTA OBIIT. VII. IAN. MDCXCV. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

In her last moments Mary was attended by Archbishop Tenison and other divines.

WILLIAM III. 1695–1702.

400. War with France: Unsuccessful attempt on Dunkirk, 1695. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. J. MAVGER F. Rev. Dunkirk bombarded; vessel sinking, &c. DUNKERCA ILLÆSA. MDCXCV. Silver. Size 1·6. By J. Mauger.

In August 1695 the combined English and Dutch fleets made an unsuccessful attempt to bombard Dunkirk. This medal is one of the historical series of Louis XIV.

401. Retaking of Namur, 1695. Obv. Bust of King r., same as No. 395; below, B. K. (monogram) F. Rev. King on horseback, commanding at siege of Namur. CORAM C.M. HOST. REPRES.; in ex., NAMURC. URBS ARX CAST. INVIA VI EXPUGN. 1. SEPT. MDCXCV. I. B. F. By J. Boskam.

Namur, taken by the French in 1692, was retaken by William in Sept. 1695. The city surrendered in the sight of a French reinforcement of 100,000 men, which arrived just too late. (See the converse event, No. 385.)

402. Another. Obv. King radiate as the sun, on horseback, galloping r.; beneath, view of city, NAMVRCVM.——Q. GALLOS EIECIT HISPANOS RESTITVIT HOSTES TERRVIT SOCIOS FIRMAVIT ASSERTVS ORBIS. Rev. Fame flying r., her trumpet decorated with flag, on which arms of William; below, GVILIELMO III. MAXIMO, &c. Gold. Size 2·2.

A complimentary medal to William on the taking of Namur. 85

403. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. L. Rev. River-god (the Meuse), reclining r., near Namur, bombarded. NAMVRC. RECEPT.; in ex., IN SOLIDO RVRSVS FORTVNA LOCAVIT. CI?I?CXCV. Copper. Size 1·95. By J. Luder.

404. Plot to assassinate the King, 1696. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., armed with shield, inscribed with name of Jehovah in Hebrew and NON LÆDITVR QVEM TEGO. WILHELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. Rev. Six furies holding daggers, torches, and snakes, restrained by cords from heaven. DEXTRA LATENS COERCET. MDCXCVI. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·5. By J. Boskam.

This medal commemorates the conspiracy of Sir George Barclay, who, with about forty accomplices, formed a plot to murder the King, on 3 March, 1696, on his return to Kensington from the hunt at Richmond.

405. Another. Obv. Jugate heads of Louis XIV. and James II. r. HERODES ATQVE PILATVS. ACTOR, IV. 26. Rev. Within enclosure, Louis and James holding purse and daggers, Father Petre with pyx, and the young Prince riding on lobster; outside enclosure, conspirators in wood and 40; in the distance, fleet; beneath, GENESIS XLIX. 5, 6. IRRITA CONSPIRATIO; in ex., ADVERS. GVILIELMVM III. ANGLIAE REGEM. 3. MART. 1696. Silver. Size 1·65.

The conduct of James II. and Louis XIV. is likened to the reconciliation of Herod and Pilate. The reverse refers to the bribery of the conspirators, and the figures 40 to the number of those engaged in the plot, the whole scene being explained by a reference to Genesis xlix. 5, 6, where the conduct and characters of Simeon and Levi are set forth. (See also No. 288.)

406. Peace of Ryswick, 1697. Obv. Belgic lion crowned r., holding olive-branch, sword and scales, and resting on globe. HINC PAX VNDE ÆQVITAS; in ex., ANGLORVM GLORIA REGE WILHELMO III. MDCXCVII. I. B. F. Rev. Palace of Ryswick. PAX HVIC DOMVI; in ex., PAX GENER. IN ARCE RYSWYK DOMO PRINCIP. ARAVS. MAG. BRIT. REGIS. MDCXCVII. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

The war with France was terminated by the Treaty of Ryswick, concluded between England, Holland, Spain and France, 30 Sept. 1697, Germany assenting 31 Oct. following. The treaty was mediated by Charles XII. of Sweden, at the palace of Ryswick, and by it France acknowledged William's claim to the English throne, &c. 86

407. Another. Obv. Head of King r., laur. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. I. BOSKAM F. Rev. Four right hands from clouds united to form a cross. COEVNT IN FOEDERA DEXTRAE. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Boskam.

The four hands represent the chief contracting Powers, Germany, France, England, and Holland.

408. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Corn growing within helmet. PACIS ALVMNA CERES; in ex., MDCXCVII. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Boskam.

The corn growing from the helmet is meant to signify its disuse for military purposes.

409. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., wearing armour and cloak. GVLIELMVS III. DEI GRA. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. Rev. Britannia wearing naval crown, seated l., holding trident and resting on shield of St. George; beside her, olive-branch on Bible and broken yoke. RESTITVTORI; in ex., BRITANNIA. MDCXCVII. Silver. Size 2·7. By J. Croker.

This medal is symbolical of the state of England after the Peace of Ryswick. Empress of the sea, victorious on land, she throws off the yoke of Popery, and gives freedom of worship to her subjects.

410. Another. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r., laur. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS R. CHRIST. F. P. SEMP. VICT. Rev. Obelisk inscribed by Fame, Janus-headed, and decorated with medallion of Louis, held by armed female figure, who also restrains Pegasus; on each side, flags, &c.; on base, HILARITAS P. G. PACE PUB. RYSWIK AD NUT. REGIS STABILITA MDCIIIC; on moulding, BARCELONNE and ATH.; around, FINITA TROPHOEIS BELLA. Silver. Size 2·75. French.

One of the French commemorative medals of the Peace of Ryswick. The names on the moulding record two of the successes obtained by French arms during the negotiations at Ryswick; these were the capitulation of Ath, near Brussels, to Marshal Boufflers, 7 June, 1697, and also that of Barcelona to the Duc de Vendôme, 10 Aug. following.

411. New Collar presented to Dublin, 1698. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. GVLIELMVS TERTIVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c.; on arm, James R. F. Rev. GVLIELMVS III. ANTIQVAM ET FIDELEM HIBERNIÆ METROPOLIN. HOC INDVLGENTIÆ SVÆ MVNERE ORNAVIT. BARTH. VAN HOMRIGH ARM. VRB. PRÆTORE. MDCXCVIII. Silver. Size 3·3. By James Roettier.

The collar which Charles II. had presented to the Lord 87 Mayor of Dublin having been carried off by Sir Michael Creagh, William in 1698 presented a new one to the city, Bartholomew van Homrigh being the Lord Mayor for that year.

412. Darien Expedition, 1700. Obv. Highlander (Capt. Campbell) in helmet and scale armour, advancing towards the storming of fort seen in the distance; above, on ribbon ornamented with compass, QUID NON PRO PATRIA; in ex., TOUBOCANTI UBI 1600 HISPAN. FUDIT DUX ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. MDCC. 8. FEBR. M. S. Rev. Shield, arms of the East African Company, with supporters and crest; above, on scroll, QUA PANDITUR ORBIS; below, VIS UNITA FORTIOR. Silver-gilt. Size 2·2. By M. Smeltzing.

This medal records the storming of Toubican by Captain Alexander Campbell, who, with a small force of volunteers, assisted the colonists on the Isthmus of Darien against the attacks of the Spaniards. This medal, struck in gold, was presented to Capt. Campbell by the East African Company.

413. Death of William III., 1702. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. WILHELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. I. BOSKAM F. Rev. Eagle flying to mountains; sun setting. NON NISI SOLE OCCIDVO REVOLAT; in ex., MORITVR ANNO MDCCII. XIX. MARTII. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Boskam.

William died 19 March, 1702. He is here likened to the eagle, who at sunset returns to its native mountains.

414. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GULIELM. III. TRISTI DOLENDUS IN ÆVO. M. SMELTZING. Rev. Eagle flying r. from Temple of Janus with open doors; on r., military standards held by hands. INVICTA VIRTUTE RESURGET NAT. HAGAE COMITIS D. XIV. NOV. 1650. DENAT. KENSINGTON D. XIX. MARTII. 1702. M. S. F. Silver. Size 1·9. By M. Smeltzing.

The open doors of the temple are indicative of the war which, owing to the encroachments of Louis XIV., threatened Europe at the time of the King's death.

415. Another. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. DIV. GVIL. III. BRIT. CÆS. BATAV. GVB. R. A. Rev. Britannia and Holland, with their shields, seated before funeral pyre, with commemorative inscription; above, three signs of the zodiac,–Scorpio, Leo (as Lion of Nassau), and Libra. REDII IAM VOS VIGILATE. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

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416. Memorial of William III. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. IN PIAM MEMORIAM GVLIELMI REGIS 3. Rev. Within border composed of arms, flags, &c., crowned harp. Gold. Size 2·45. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By J. Croker.

This medal was presented, with a grant of land, to Jeremiah Scott of Scots Hall, Kent, for services rendered at the battle of the Boyne. The portrait is the same as on No. 409.

417. Frederick, Marshal Schomberg, 1690. Obv. Bust, three quarters r., in armour. FRIDERICUS MARESCHALCUS SCHOMBERG, &c.; on arm, P. H. M. Rev. Schomberg in Roman dress, holding shield with Christian monogram, planting his club, which takes root and flourishes; at his feet, cornucopiae with money, and ducal coronet; behind, pyramid, against which five shields,–France, Empire, Scotland, Spain, and Ireland, the scenes of his career. PLANTAVIT UBIQUE FERACEM; in ex., CONTINVATIS TRIVMPHIS OBDVRATA IN DEVM FIDE IN HIBER. MILITANTI. 1690. Edge inscribed. Silver. Size 1·95. By P. H. Müller.

Marshal Schomberg, who commanded for William in Ireland, was killed at the battle of the Boyne, 11 July, 1690. (See No. 357.) Schomberg is here represented as Hercules, who at the conclusion of his labours planted his club, which was transformed into an olive-tree.

One of the series of medals issued at Nuremberg by Kleinert and Lauffer. (See No. 343.)

ANNE. 1702–1714.

418. Accession, 1702. Obv. Bust of Queen l., crowned, draped, wearing collar of Garter and George. ANNA DEI GRATIA MAG. BRITAN. FRA. &c. Rev. Statue of Anne as Pallas, armed with spear and shield. NOVÆ PALLADIVM TROIÆ. Silver. Size 2·7. By J. Croker.

Anne succeeded to the throne 8 March, 1702. This medal refers to the promise made by Anne to the States General, that she would assist Holland in resisting the encroachments of France.

419–420. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., crowned and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. Rev. Heart crowned, within branches of laurel and oak, resting on pedestal inscribed, ATAVIS REGIBVS: ENTIRELY ENGLISH. Gold and silver. Size 1·35. By J. Boskam.

On receiving an address of congratulation from both Houses, Anne declared that she would prosecute the measures concerted by the late King.

421. Prince George of Denmark. Obv. Bust r., in armour and cloak. GEO. DAN. PR. M. ADM. ET DVX SVP. ANGLIAE; in ex., NAT. 21. APRIL. 1655. DENAT. 8. NOVEMB. 1708; on arm, RÖG. Rev. CELSISSIMUS PRINCEPS GEORGIUS, MAGNI REGIS FILIUS, &c. Silver. Size 1·9. By M. Rög.

Prince George of Denmark, consort of Anne, born 1655, died 1708, was on the accession of Anne made Commander-in-chief of the army and Lord High Admiral. This medal was executed in Denmark by Michael Rög, who worked at Copenhagen till 1715, about which time he went to Paris, where he earned considerable reputation as a medallist.

422. Coronation, 1702. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. Rev. Pallas r., hurling thunderbolt at two-headed monster, armed with clubs and stones. VICEM GERIT ILLA TONANTIS; in ex., INAVGVRAT. XXIII. AP. MDCCII. Gold. Size 1·35. By J. Boskam.

Anne was crowned 23 Apr. 1702. This medal was struck for distribution to those present at the coronation.

423. War of the Spanish Succession: Capitulations of towns On the Meuse, &c., 1702. Obv. Bust of Queen l., crowned and draped. ANNA DEI GRA. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. Rev. Liège bombarded. VIRES ANIMVMQVE MINISTRAT; in ex., CAPTIS COLONIA TRAJANA, VENLOA, RVREMVNDA, STEPHANOVERDA, LEODIO. MDCCII. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Boskam.

At the opening of the campaign in 1702, Marlborough in a very short time captured Kaiserwerth, Venloo, Ruremonde, Stevenswart, and Liège.

424. Expedition to Vigo Bay, 1702. Obv. Neptune in sea-chariot r., and Victory holding scroll inscribed with names and list of French and Spanish ships taken or destroyed; below, three sea-genii, with shields of England, Germany, and Holland. HIS MILITAT AETHER; in ex., OB CLASSEM HOSTIVM DELEDAM (sic) GAZASQVE INDICAS EREPTAS IN PORTV AD VIGOS. D. 22. OCT. CI?I?CCII. G. F. N.; and on car, G. H. Rev. Vigo harbour; within, French and Spanish fleets; outside, those of England and Holland; on land, troops and fortifications. ET CONIVRATI VENIVNT AD 90 CLASSICA VENTI. Silver. Size 1·85. By G. Hautsch and G. F. Nürnberger.25

On 22 Oct. 1702 the combined English and Dutch fleets, under Sir George Rooke, with 12,000 troops, commanded by the Duke of Ormond, attacked and destroyed the French and Spanish fleets in Vigo Bay, capturing a large booty.

Gold and silver coins struck from bullion taken in the engagement bear under the bust of the Queen the inscription VIGO.

425. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. I. Boskam F. Rev. French and Spanish fleets within harbour, attacked by those of England and Holland. GALL. HISP. Q. CLASS. EXPUG. COMB. CAPT.; in ex., BRIT. BATAV. Q. EXPEO. (sic) AD VIGOS. MDCCII. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

The previous medal represents the position of the belligerents before the battle, this one during the engagement.

426. Capitulation of Bonn, 1703. Obv. Same. Rev. Bonn besieged; Marlborough in foreground on horseback l., commanding. BONA A MALIS EREPTA; in ex., COCIALIBUS (sic) ARMIS IDIB. MAII. MDCCIII. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

Bonn surrendered to Marlborough on the 14 May, 1703, after a siege of less than a fortnight.

427. Another: Baron de Cohorn, 1703. Obv. Bust of Cohorn, three quarters r., in armour. MENNO BARO DE COEHOORN SVMMVS APVD BATAVOS ARMORVM PRÆFECTVS, &c.; on arm, H. Rev. View of Bonn besieged. siC Igne DoMata feroCI (chronogrammatic); in ex., UT TONUS EVERTIT TUBARUM MOENIA QUONDAM, SICQ. TONANS COEHORN, MOENIA, BONNA TUA. G. F. N.; on edge, E MALA BONNA DIU, SIC BONA FACTA BREVI. Silver. Size 1·85. By G. Hautsch and G. F. Nürnberger.

Baron Menno de Cohorn, the celebrated engineer, commanded the Dutch troops at the siege of Bonn, and superintended the operations of the attack. Died 1704.

428. Capture of Gibraltar, 1704. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. Rev. Neptune in sea-chariot l., 91 presenting trident with crown, and mural crown to Britannia on rock. VICTORIÆ NAVALES; in ex., CALPE EXPVG. ET GALL. VICT. MDCCIV. Gold. Size 1·55. By J. Croker.

Sir George Rooke and the Prince of Hesse, with a small force of sailors and marines, captured Gibraltar 3 Aug. 1704.

429. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. P. H. M. Rev. Neptune stepping l. from shell, presenting shell and trident to Britannia, seated on arms, holding Victory; above, Victory, with wreaths; on r., inscribed trophy. MARIS IMPERIVM ASSERT. PORTV GIBRALTAR CAPTO CLASSE GALL. FVGATA; in ex., VIRTVS ANGLORVM VICTRIX PERPETVA. 1704. Edge inscribed. Silver. Size 1·75. By P. H. Müller.

Sir G. Rooke was under the impression that the French fleet had sought safety in flight; such was not the case, as the Count de Toulouse, who commanded the Brest fleet, in proceeding to Toulon had actually passed the English fleet, the circumstance being unknown to both Admirals. One of Kleinert and Lauffer's series of medals. (See No. 343.)

430. Victory of Blenheim, 1704. Obv. Bust of Queen l.; same as No. 425. Rev. View of battle-field, Marlborough on horseback r., commanding. DE GALL. ET BAV. ITERVM AD DANVB. MARLB. DVCE; in ex., DELETO HOST. ING. EXERC. MDCCIIII. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

The battle of Blenheim was fought 13 Aug. 1704. The Allies were commanded by Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and the French and Bavarians by Marshals Tallard and Marsin, and the Elector.

431. Another. Obv. Busts of Prince Eugene and Marlborough in armour, face to face. EUGENIUS D. SABAUDIAE. IOH. D. MARLEBOROW; beneath, HIC POLLUX, HIC CASTOR ADEST, &c. Rev. Battle-scene; in foreground, Eugene and Marlborough driving enemy into the Danube, DONAV, and Marshal Tallard giving up his sword; above, Fame with two trumpets. PIACULA TEMERITATIS GALLICAE; in ex., inscr. giving date of battle, XIII. AUG. MDCCIIII, &c. Silver. Size 2·2. Executed in Holland.

432. Duke of Marlborough, 1706. Obv. Bust towards r., head facing, wearing armour and collar of Garter and George. IOH. D. G. S. R. I. PR. D. MARL. EXERC. ANGL. C. G. Rev. Soldier running l., bearing captured arms and shields of 92 Brabant, Flanders, and the Marquisate of the Empire; around, prostrate foes. PRETIVM NON VILE LABORVM; in ex., GALLIS ACIE DEVICTIS BRABANTIA FLANDR. ET ANTWERP. XV. DIER. SP. EREPT. 1706; on edge, MARTE FEROX ET VINCI NESCIVS ARMIS. VIRG. (Ovid. II. Ep. ex P. ix. 45.) Silver. Size 1·45.

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, the celebrated general, born 1650, created Earl 1689, Duke 1702, died 1722. This medal was struck in 1706, after the conquest of Brabant and of Spanish Flanders, and after the capture of Antwerp. It is placed out of chronological order, being selected for the portrait of Marlborough.

433. Prince Eugene of Savoy, 1704. Obv. Bust r., in armour and collar of Golden Fleece. EVGENIVS FRANC. DVX SAB. CÆS. EXER. GENER. COMM. Rev. Angel with flaming sword destroying the army of Sennacherib. GENII VIRTVTE BONI. II. REG. 19; in ex., GALLIS BAVARISQ. CÆSIS TALLARDO CUM X. MILI. AD HOCHSTAD CAPT. 1704; edge inscribed. Silver. Size 1·45.

Francis Eugene, Duke of Savoy, the distinguished general, born 1663, died 1736; commanded with Marlborough in the war of the Spanish Succession. This medal was struck after the victory of Blenheim, 1704.

434. Naval engagement off Malaga, 1704. Obv. Head of Toulouse r. LOUIS ALEXANDRE DE BOURBON COMTE DE TOULOUSE AMIRAL DE FRANCE, GAYRARD F. Rev. Victory in galley l., inscribing shield attached to mast; at her feet, arms and flags. BRITANNIS BATAVIS QUE DEVICTIS; in ex., XXIV. AOUST. MDCCIV. DE PUYMAURIN D. GAYRARD F. Copper. Size 2·65. By De Puymaurin and R. Gayrard.

After the capture of Gibraltar, Sir G. Rooke proceeded to the coast of Malaga, where he attacked, 14 Aug. 1704 (old style), the French fleet under the command of the Count de Toulouse. On the third day the French retired, the affair ending in a drawn battle; the French, however, claimed a victory. The Count de Toulouse was a natural son of Louis XIV., b. 1678, d. 1737. This is probably a centenary medal.

435–436. Queen Anne's Bounty, 1704. Obv. Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. &c. I. C. Rev. Anne seated r., on throne, presenting charter to bishops kneeling. PIETAS AVGVSTÆ; in ex., PRIMITIIS ET DECIMIS ECCLESIÆ CONCESSIS. MDCCIV. Gold and silver. Size 1·7. By J. Croker.

By letters patent, 3 Nov. 1703, Anne restored to the 93 Church such portion of the "First Fruits" and "Tenths" of the larger benefices as still formed part of the revenues of the Crown. A Bill was subsequently passed, authorizing this alienation of the royal revenue, and empowering the Queen to create a corporation, in which she could invest the fund for the augmentation of poor livings and for the erection of parsonage-houses.

437. War of the Spanish Succession: Projects of Peace, 1705. Obv. Three short pillars encircled by chain and surmounted by wreath, mural crown, and naval crown, and inscribed with the victories of the Allies during 1704; below, ANNVS MDCCIV; around, GERMANIS ANGLIS BATAVIS FELICISSM. ? GALLIS HISPANIS BAVARIS INFELICISS. Rev. LVDOVICO MAGNO QVI BAVARIS DEBELLATIS, &c. PACEM EXPECTAT PETIT. ANNO MDCCV. Silver. Size 2. Dutch.

The armies of France and her allies having suffered many severe defeats during 1704, Louis XIV. early in 1705 made proposals of peace, to be submitted by Switzerland to the Allies. The attempt was unsuccessful on account of the jealousy existing between the Protestant and Catholic cantons.

438. French lines forced at Neerhespen, &c., 1705. Obv. Bust of Queen l.; same as No. 425. Rev. The French lines at Neerhespen attacked by the Allies; in foreground, Marlborough on horseback l., commanding. FORTES FORTVNA IVVAT. (Virg. Aen. x. 284); in ex., FOSSIS FALLISQ. (sic) HOST. SVPERATIS IN BR. ET FL. CI?I?CV. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

This medal commemorates the forcing of the French lines at Neerhespen, by Marlborough, 17 July, 1705, and those at Fort St. Philip, in Flanders, by Baron Spar, 4 Aug. 1705.

439. Capitulation of Barcelona, 1705. Obv. Bust of Charles III. of Spain r., laur., in armour and cloak, and collar of "Golden Fleece." CAROLVS III. D. G. HISPANIARVM REX. Rev. Barcelona bombarded by sea and land. MAGNORVM HAEC PORTA LABORVM; in ex., BARCINO CAPTA PRID. EID. OCT. CI?I?CCV. I. B. F. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

The Earl of Peterborough uniting his fleet with a Dutch squadron under Allemonde, and accompanied by the Archduke Charles, took the fortresses of Lerida and Tortosa and forced Barcelona to capitulate. In consequence 94 of this victory, the whole of Valencia and Catalonia declared for the Archduke, who took the title of Charles III.

440. Battle of Ramillies, 1706. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. CROKER. Rev. Two Fames holding map of Low Countries. GALLIS AD RAMELLIES VICTIS. XII. MAII. MDCCVI; in ex., FLANDR. ET BRABANT. RECEPT. Silver. Size 1·3. By J. Croker.

In this battle the Allies, commanded by Marlborough, routed the French and Bavarians under Villeroy and the Elector. This victory resulted in the conquest of Brabant and nearly the whole of Spanish Flanders.

441. Flight of Philip V. from Madrid, and Conquest of Brabant, 1706. Obv. Philip on horseback l., dropping his crown and flying before Genius, who covers sun with shield of Austria; distant view of Barcelona. SOLIS ECLIPSIS. D. 12. MAI.; in ex., BARCELLONA OBSIDIONE LIBERATA PHILIPPO ANDEGAV. EX HISP. FVGATO. Rev. Marlborough on horseback galloping towards r., over fallen enemies; cities, as women, surrendering keys. VICTORIARVM IMPETVS; in ex., inscription recording the conquest of Brabant and Flanders by Marlborough, MDCCVI; on edge, SIC SOL CRESCENTES DECEDENS DVPLICAT VMBRAS. VIRG. (F. K.) (Cf. Virg. Ec. ii. 67.) Silver. Size 1·75.

Philip V. having raised the siege of Barcelona returned to Madrid, 11 May, 1706; but fearing the approach of the Earl of Galway and the Archduke Charles, he quitted the city on the following day. The reverse refers to the victories of Marlborough in Brabant and Flanders. One of the series of medals issued by Kleinert and Lauffer at Nuremberg. (See No. 343.)

442. Victories of the Allies in Spain and the Low Countries, 1706. Obv. Segment of a globe, inscribed EUROPÆ; above, clouds concealing sun (emblem of Louis XIV.). SIC OBSCURATUR GLORIA MAGNI REGIS. MDCCVI. Rev. Attached to trophy of flags, medallion of Charles III., surrounded by three others murally crowned, with views of bombardment of Barcelona XII. MAY, battle of Ramillies XIIII. MAY, and entry into Madrid XXVI. IVNY. DOMINUMQUE IN REGNA TULERE. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Smeltzing.

The Earl of Galway, who commanded the allied forces in Portugal, advanced into Spain, and after capturing Alcantara, Ciudad Rodrigo, and Salamanca, entered Madrid 95 in triumph, 26 June, 1706, and proclaimed the Archduke Charles king. This medal refers also to the raising of the siege of Barcelona and the battle of Ramillies.

443. Victories of Anne over Louis XIV., 1706. Obv. Anne as Pallas overwhelming Louis XIV. in dress of ancient warrior. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS ANNA MAIOR. Rev. Abimelech struck by millstone at the siege of Thebez. PERCVTE ME NE DICATVR QVOD A FEMINA INTERFECTVS SIM. IVDIC. C. 9.; on edge, DOMINVS TRADIDIT EVM IN MANVS FOEMINÆ. IVDITH XVI. C. Silver. Size 1·65. Dutch.

The fate of Louis is here likened to that of Abimelech (Judges ix. 50–52).

444–445. Union of England and Scotland, 1707. Obv. Bust of Queen l., crowned, draped, wearing collar of Garter and George. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET HIB. REG. I. C. Rev. Royal shield crowned, between palm and olive branches and resting on pedestal with royal monogram; on either side, supporters, lion and unicorn, with shields of Scotland and England; below, two sceptres crossed and collar of Garter. MAII I. MDCCVII. Gold and silver. Size 1·8. By J. Croker.

The Act of Union between England and Scotland received the royal assent 6 March, 1707, and came into operation on 1 May following.

446. Another: Union celebrated at Leipsic, 1707. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped and crowned. ANNA D. G. MAG. ET UNITÆ BRITA. FRA. &c. C. W. Rev. Britannia and Scotia, holding between them two wreaths crossed; distant view of Leipsic. ET EXTERIS ETIAM GRATA; in ex., IN ACTVM LIPSIENSEM D. 26 IVLII ANNO MDCCVII. 6 AVGVST. IN HONOREM MAGNÆ UNIONIS AC CELEBRATION. D. NOMINALIS ANNAE M. B. R. HABITVM. CVRARE FECIT C. WERMUTH; on edge, QVAE BELLO PACEQVE MAIOR. Silver. Size 1·7. By C. Wermuth.26

The Act of Union between England and Scotland was celebrated with much festivity at Leipsic on the 26th July, which day was also the feast of St. Anne.

447. War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Almanza, 1707. Obv. Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS MAGNUS 96 REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. T. B. (monogram). Rev. Spain seated r., holding shield of France; around her, arms. ADSERTUM PHILIPPO V. HISPANIARUM IMPERIUM; in ex., HOSTIBUS AD ALMANZAM CÆSIS. XXV. APRIL. MDCCVII. Copper. Size 1·6. By Thomas Bernard.

At the battle of Almanza, 25 April, 1707, the English and Portuguese, under the Earl of Galway and Las Minas, were routed by the French and Spaniards under the Duke of Berwick, and Aragon was again reduced under the authority of Philip V. This medal is one of the historical series of Louis XIV.

448. Capitulation of Lerida, 1707. Obv. Similar: no engraver's initials. Rev. Soldier with French flag l., scaling rock, from which falls woman, who clings to broken pillar. NOVA GLORIA; in ex., ILERDA EXPUGNATA. XI. NOV. MDCCVII. D. V. Copper. Size 1·6. By J. Du Vivier.27

The defeat of the Allies at Almanza was followed by the capture of Lerida. The town was taken on 12 Oct. 1707, and the castle on 11 Nov. following. This medal is of the same series as the previous one.

449. Swedish troops withdrawn from Silesia, &c., 1707. Obv. Busts, face to face, of Anne crowned, and Charles XII. of Sweden, in armour and cloak; on their arms, C. W. ANNA D. G. M. BRIT. REGINA. CAROL. XII. D. G. REX SVEC.; below, IN SPONSION. PACIF. RELIG. SILES. Rev. Religion and Justice seated, holding hands; distant views of towns of M'BERG. (Munsterberg), WOHLAU, BRESLAU, BRIEG, and LIGNITZ; above, SILESIA, and three r. hands from clouds, joined; around, TRES REGVM SCHLESIAM DECORANT DVM LVMINE DEXTRAE IVNGERE QVIS DVBITET IVSQVE FIDEMQVE MANVS; in ex., FELICITER PERACT. AO. MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·7. By C. Wermuth.

The alarm caused by the defeat at Almanza was increased by the appearance of Charles XII. of Sweden on the borders of the Empire with a large army, which it was apprehended he would use in support of France. Through the diplomacy of Marlborough, Charles was induced to withdraw his troops from Silesia and to turn 97 his forces against Russia, but not before he had obtained from the Emperor a promise of a free exercise of religion to the Protestants in Silesia. This medal was not issued till the following year.

450. Attempted invasion of Scotland by the Elder Pretender, 1708. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. H. Rev. French fleet chased by that of England off the coast of Scotland. FVGERE NON FALLERE TRIVMPHVS; in ex., GALLORVM CONATVS IN SCOTIAM ANNAE M. VIGILANTIA. ELVSI. CI?I?CCIIX; on edge, SIC PVERI NASVM RHINOCEROTIS HABENT. (Cf. Mart. i. 4.) Silver. Size 1·55. By G. Hautsch.

The Elder Pretender, having made a descent upon the coast of Scotland with a small squadron of frigates and transports carrying a force of 5000 men, was compelled to beat a hasty retreat without effecting a landing, being intercepted off the coast near Montrose by an English fleet under Sir George Byng. The Pretender left Dunkirk 6 March, 1708, and returned to that place 7 April following.

451. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. Rev. Britannia, armed with spear and shield, defending Scotland, kneeling at her feet; French fleet retreating. CLASSE GAL. FVG.; in ex., AD FRETVM EDENBVRG. XIV. MARTII. MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·65. By J. Croker.

452. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped. ANNA D. G. MAGN. BRIT. FRANC. &c. S. Rev. Rose and thistle intertwined around sceptre surmounted by eye; in the distance, prisoners led to the Tower and ships in river; above one, SALISBURI. QUIS NOS IMPUNE LACESSET UNITAS; in ex., IRRITO SPURII IACOBI REDITU IN SCOTOS, CLASSE GALLICA EXTERNATA. MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·85. By M. Smeltzing.

In the expedition the Pretender lost one ship, the Salisbury, which Admiral Byng captured after a sharp chase. Among those on board this ship were Lord Griffin and the two sons of Lord Middleton, who were conveyed to the Tower.

453. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. M. B. (monogram). Rev. Ass r., about to devour thistle, driven back by smell of rose held by woman. INIMICVS ODOR APPETITV FORTIOR; in ex., GALLI SCOTIAM AGGRESSVRI SOLO ANGLORVM 98 ASPECTV FVGANTVR. 1708; on edge, IN FELIX OPERAM PERDAS, VT SI QVIS ASELLVM IN CAMPVM DOCEAT. HOR. SERM. L. I. Silver. Size 1·65. By M. Brunner.28

On this medal the Pretender is represented by the ass, Scotland by the thistle, and Anne, or Britain, by the woman who holds the rose.

454. War of the Spanish Succession: Victory of Oudenarde, 1708. Obv. Castor and Pollux (Eugene and Marlborough) on horseback, charging r. SALVTARIVM SIDERVM APPARITIO; in ex., EVGENII ET MARLEBORVGII FELIX CONIVNCTIO. Rev. View of battle of Oudenarde; town in the distance. VANDOM. IN FLANDR. SICVT IN ITAL. EVNDEM FVGIT ET VT FVGIENDVS DOCET; in ex., MVLT. MILL. GALLORVM CLADES AD ALDENAR. MDCCIIX. D. XI. IVL. Edge inscribed. Silver. Size, 1·65.

At the battle of Oudenarde, 11 July, 1708, the Allies under Eugene, Marlborough, and Ouverkirk routed the French under the Dukes of Burgundy and Vendôme, the latter having been recalled from Italy to supersede Villeroy after the battle of Ramillies. The obverse refers to the legend of the appearance of the Dioscuri at the battle of the Lake Regillus.

455. Another. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. I. BOSKAM F. Rev. Attached to trophy of French flags, &c., three medallions with busts of Eugene, Marlborough, and Ouverkirk, with fourth of Victory in centre. hæC feCerVnt hI tres arMI potentes DeI. 2 sam. 23. (chronogrammatic). I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Boskam.

Ouverkirk, who commanded the Dutch troops in the Low Countries, died during the siege of Lille, 22 Oct. 1708, worn out with the fatigue of the war and the infirmities of premature age.

456. Victory of Oudenarde and capture of Lille, 1708. Obv. Bird's-eye view of battle-field of Oudenarde. In GaLLos VarIas DabIT ADenarDa Coronas (chronogrammatic); in ex., FVGIEN. EX VATACINIO GALLIS VICTORIA PARTA. 11. IVL. 1708. C. W. Rev. Bird's-eye view of town and fortress of Lille. In ODenarDer sIeg besteht Dass RysseL forT 99 noCh VIeL weg geht (chronogrammatic); in ex., SPECTANT HORTVLANIS LILIVM DECERPT. 23. OCT. & 9. DEC. 1708. Silver. Size 1·7. By C. Wermuth.

The victory of Oudenarde was followed by the capture of Lille 9 Dec. 1708.

457. Taking of Sardinia and Minorca, 1708. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. Rev. Victory, with palm and English flag, on shell in sea; Sardinia and Minorca in the distance. SARDINIA ET BALEARIS MINOR CAPTÆ. MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·5. By J. Croker.

The island of Sardinia was taken by Admiral Leake Aug. 1708, and in the next month he captured Minorca, in conjunction with General Stanhope, who commanded the land forces.

458. Capitulation of Lille, 1708. Obv. Same as reverse of No. 455. Rev. Eugene on horseback l., commanding at siege of Lille. VI FACTA VIA EST. (Virg. Aen. ii. 494); in ex., MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Boskam.

The siege of Lille was opened by Eugene 22 Aug., Marlborough commanding the covering army. The city surrendered 22 Oct.; but the citadel, which was defended by the French general Marshal Boufflers, held out till 9 Dec.

459. Another. Obv. Building of the Tower of Babel and the Confusion of Tongues. CONFVNDAMVS LINGVAM EORVM, VT NON AVDIAT VNVSQVISQVE VOCEM PROXIMI SVI. (cf. Genesis xi. 7); in ex., RYSSEL VEL INSVLÆ PER PRINCIPEM EVGENIVM OBSESSA. 22. AVG. ET 23. OCT. RECEPTA. 1708. Rev. The citadel of Lille besieged; above, sun and moon. SISTE SOL IN GIBEON ET LVNA IN VALLE AIALON. (Joshua x. 12); in ex., CASTELLVM RYSEL OBSESSVM. XXVII. OCT. RECEPTVM VERO. IX. DEC.; on edge, VNITA VIRTVS VALET. Silver. Size 1·9. Dutch.

The building of the Tower of Babel and the Confusion of Tongues denote the useless efforts of the French to defend Lille and the discord which existed among their generals.

460. Another. Obv. Victory flying l., with wreath and flag of Holland; below, captured arms, and Oudenarde in the distance. ADVERSA ET AVERSA GLORIOSA; in ex., FLANDRIA UTRINQUE TROPÆIFERA CÆSI EX ITINERE GALLI AD AUDENARDAM. XII. IUL. MDCCVIII. M. S. Rev. 100 Deputies l., followed by soldiers surrendering town of Lille to Eugene; Marlborough and his army in the distance. VICIT PERVICAX VIRTUS; in ex., INSULÆ VISCERIBUS LUDOVICI XIV. EREPTÆ NEPOTIBUS ET EXERCITU FRUSTRA RELUCTANT. IX. DEC. MDCCVIII. M. S. Silver. Size 1·85. By M. Smeltzing.

This medal commemorates the battle of Oudenarde as well as the capture of Lille.

461. Another. Obv. Lille l., presenting key of city to Eugene and Marlborough, each holding lily. LILIIS DISCERPTIS LILIVM CAPTVM; in ex., EVGENIO OBSIDENTE, MARLBORVG. PROTEGENTE, GALLO SPECTANTE, INSVLÆ CAPTÆ. MDCCIIX. XXIII OCT. M. B. (monogram). Rev. Plan of Lille. VRBS ANTIQVA REDIT MVLTOS DOMINATA PER ANNOS. Virg. (Aen. ii. 363); on edge, NEC MINOR EST VIRTVS, QVAM QVÆRERE FACTA TVERI. Silver. Size 1·7. By M. Brunner.

This medal indicates the parts taken by Eugene and Marlborough at the siege of Lille, the former superintending the attack, the latter commanding the army, which covered the besiegers.

462. Capitulation of Tournay, 1709. Obv. Bombardment of Tournay. SOLVTA CATENIS INSVRGIT. (Ovid. Metam. iv. 738); in ex., TORNACVM CAPTVM. MDCCIX. Rev. French ship in storm, with broken mainmast, sailors casting cargo into sea; one bale inscribed, DORNIK.–NE PEREAT PERDIT; on edge, REGNI COLLAPSA RVVNT IMMANIA MEMBRA. VIRGIL. (Cf. Aen. ix. 708.) C. G. L. Silver. Size 1·75.

Tournay was invested by Eugene and Marlborough, 7 July, 1709, and it capitulated on the 30th of the same month. The French nation is here likened to a ship in a storm, the broken mainmast denoting the loss of Lille, and the abandoned cargo the capitulation of Tournay. This medal was struck at Nuremberg, and was issued by K. G. Lauffer. (See No. 343.)

463. Another. Obv. Tournay besieged; above, shields of Flanders and Tournay united by ribbon. QVID NVNC TE TVA, TORNE, POTEST ANTIQVA IVVARE GLORIA, (cf. Virg. Aen. xii. 872); in ex., CESSIT INVICTIS FOEDERATORVM ARMIS. M. IVL. 30. MDCCIX. N. Rev. France seated, facing, her hands clasped in attitude of despair, at her feet olive-branches and masks; in the distance, tower struck by lightnings. DOMINE, DIXERVNT: PAX ERIT VOBIS, ET ECCE PERVENIT GLADIVS VSQ. AD ANIMAM. (Cf. Jer. iv. 10.) M. B. (monogram); on edge, NON ASSVMES NOMEN PACIS IN VANVM. (Cf. Exod. xx. 7.) Silver. Size 1·7. By M. Brunner.

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The olive-branches and masks at feet of France refer to the unsuccessful proposals of peace made by Louis to the Allies in June 1709, through the Marquis de Torcy.

464. Battle of Malplaquet, 1709. Obv. Bust of Queen l., crowned and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. &c. I. C. Rev. Battle in forest; above, Victory flying r., with two wreaths. CONCORDIA ET VIRTVTE; in ex., GALLIS AD TAISNIERE DEVICTIS. AVG. XXXI. MDCCIX. Silver. Size 1·85. By J. Croker.

At the battle of Malplaquet, 11 Sept. 1709, the Allies, who were victorious, were commanded by Eugene and Marlborough, and the French by Marshals Villars and Boufflers. The engaged armies fought within the woods of Lanières, Tasnières, and Sars.

465. Capitulation of Mons, 1709. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. Rev. View of Mons; above, Victory flying l., with wreath and palm. MONTIBVS IN HANNONIA CAPTIS. MDCCIX. Silver. Size 1·55. By J. Croker.

Mons was the prize of Malplaquet, and surrendered to Eugene 20 Oct. 1709. This was the last success of the Allies in the campaign of 1709 in the Low Countries.

466. Capitulation of Douay, 1710. Obv. Plan of town and fortress of Douay. HÆC REQVIEM REBVS FINEMQVE LABORI ALLATVRA. (Claud. Lib. II., Carm. v. 331); in ex., DVACVM CAPT. D. 29. IVN. MDCCX. N. Rev. Pallas l., snatching from Jupiter half his thunderbolt. BREVI TEMPORE INERMIS ERIT. (Ovid. Trist. Eleg. ii. 33); in ex., VIRTVTE FOEDERATORVM. M. B. (monogram); on edge, INVENIT TAM LONGA POTENTIA FINEM. (Lucan, i. 333.) Silver. Size 1·7. By M. Brunner.

The campaign of 1710 in Holland opened with the occupation by the Allies of the French lines at Pont-à-Vendin and Courrières, and with the siege of Douay, which capitulated 29 June, 1710.

467. Capitulation of Bethune, &c., 1710. Obv. Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped. ANNA AVGVSTA. I. C. Rev. Trophy of arms, flags, and mural crowns on pedestal. BETHVNIA FANO. STI. VENANTII ET ARIA CAPTIS; in ex., INSPECTANT GALL. CENT MILL. MDCCX. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Croker.

The capitulation of Douay was followed by that of Bethune, 30 July; of St. Venant, 29 Sept.; and Aire, 11 Nov. 102

468. Eugene and Marlborough, 1710. Obv. Busts of Eugene and Marlborough, face to face, in armour, &c. EVGENIVS FRANC. DVX SABAVD. IOHANNES DVX D. MARLB. S. R. I. P. Rev. Within five ornamented borders, views of battle (occupation of lines of Pont-à-Vendin and Courrières), MVNIMENTA OCCVPATA, DOVAY, BETHVNE, S. VENANT, and ARIEN; the first is surmounted by crown of chevaux de frise, the others each by mural crown; in ex., MDCCX.; on edge, ARMORVM FOEDERATORVM FRVCTVS. Silver. Size 1·75.

The reverse type records the successes of the Allies under Eugene and Marlborough in the Low Countries during the year 1710.

469. Victory of Almenara, 1710. Obv. Same as No. 467. Rev. Battle scene; fight between English and Spanish cavalry. PVGNA EQVESTRIS; in ex., HISPANIS AD ALMENARAM VICT. IVLII. XVI. MDCCX. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Croker.

On 27 July, 1710, General Stanhope and Marshal Staremberg, who commanded the Allies in Spain, brought Philip to action near Almenara, and routed his whole army in less than half an hour. In consequence of his defeat Philip was compelled to retreat to Saragoza.

470. Victory of Saragoza, 1710. Obv. Same. Rev. Victory laying French flags at feet of Anne, enthroned r.; near her, Britannia. HISPANIS PROFLIGATIS; in ex., AD CÆSARIAM AVGVSTAM AVG. IX. MDCCX. Silver. Size 1·85. By J. Croker.

The battle of Almenara was followed by another under the walls of Saragoza, in which the army of Philip was again defeated, 20 Aug. 1710. On the same day as the battle, Colonel Harrison was despatched to England with the news of the victory, taking with him the captured standards.

471. Victories over Louis XIV., 1710. Obv. Anne as Delilah r., cutting off hair of Louis XIV., seated asleep within tent; in the distance, town bombarded, &c. PHILISTER ÜBER DIR SIMSON; in ex., POST VARIAS VRBES ET DVAVAM GALLIS EREPTVM (sic). D. 27. IVN. 1710. Rev. Louis XIV. as a decrepit and gouty old man, dancing to Anne playing harp. Il sait s'accommoder aux Dames; in ex., LUDOVIC. MAGN. ANNA ILLO MAIOR. Silver. Size 1·7.

This medal was executed in Holland, and is a satire on the fortunes of Louis XIV., whose armies had suffered such severe defeats in the Low Countries and in Spain. 103

472. Dr. Henry Sacheverell, 1710. Obv. Bust three-quarters r., in canonicals. H. SACH. D.D. Rev. Bishop's mitre. IS FIRM TO THEE. Silver. Size 1·35. Cast.

Dr. Henry Sacheverell, English divine, was impeached in 1710 for two sermons preached at Derby, in which he advocated the doctrines of non-resistance and passive obedience, and attacked the Dissenters and the toleration of the "Genevan discipline," and at the same time the Ministry. He was suspended for three years.

473. Another. Obv. Same. Rev. Bust of Pope Innocent XI. r., wearing mitre and robes. IS FIRM TO THEE. Silver. Size 1·35. Cast.

The reverse type refers to a resolution appended to the sentence of Sacheverell, that the famous decree issued by the University of Oxford 1683, on the occasion of the Rye House Plot, maintaining the doctrine of passive obedience to the authority of Princes, should be burnt by the hangman. Innocent XI. was at that time Pope (1676–1689).

474. Peace of Utrecht: Preliminaries discussed, 1712. Obv. France, Spain, England, Austria, and Belgia seated at table, discussing treaty. AUDIT UIDET TACET RIDET. Rev. View of Utrecht; above, radiate name of Jehovah in Hebrew (incorrectly spelt); beneath, arms of city. BELLI FUGAT NUBES SOLEMQ. REDUCIT PACIS. (cf. Virg. Aen. i. 147); in ex., CONGRESSUS PACIFER. INCHOAT. 29. IANUAR. MDCCXII. Silver. Size 2·85. Cast and chased. Dutch.

The Peace of Utrecht, which put an end to the war of the Spanish Succession, was not signed till April and July 1713; but conferences for negotiations of peace were opened at Utrecht as early as January 1712.

475. Peace of Utrecht, 1713. Obv. Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. &c.; on arm, I. C. Rev. Anne as Britannia, head bare, standing towards l., holding olive-branch, spear, and shield; in the distance, labourers at work in fields and merchant-ships on sea. COMPOSITIS VENERANTVR ARMIS. (Hor. iv. Od. 15, 52.) MDCCXIII. Gold. Size 1·35. By J. Croker.

The series of treaties which together formed the Peace of Utrecht was a treaty between England and France, another between England and Spain, and a third between France and the States-General. The articles of this treaty 104 chiefly affecting England were the recognition of the Protestant succession of the House of Hanover and the cession of Gibraltar and Minorca.

476. Another. Obv. Similar. Rev. Similar: figure of Anne as Britannia, helmeted, holds olive-branch and spear. BELLO ET PACE; in ex., ANNO MDCCXIII. PAX RESTITVTA. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Croker.

477–478. Another. Obv. Peace r., crowned, locking door of Temple of Janus, inscribed ANNO MDCCXIII; near, two chained figures, one armed; on l., globe, &c. and Mercury holding scroll inscribed, EUROPÆ PAX REDDITA; in ex., TRAIECTUM. Rev. Europe seated l. on rock, holding olive-branch and cornucopiae; in the distance, fleet. EUROPA. Gold and silver. Size 1·85. Dutch.

GEORGE I. 1714–1727.

479. Proclamation medal, 1714. Obv. Bust of King r., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET HIB. REX. E. HANNIBAL. Rev. King in electoral cap r., accompanied by Religion and Liberty, who crowns him with wreath, and receiving crown and sceptre from Britannia trampling on monster; on r., shield of kingdom held by Lion. PRINC. OPT. RELIGIONIS ET LIBERTATIS CVSTODI; in ex., PVBLICA AVCTORITATE PROCLAMATO 1/12 AVG. ANNO MDCCXIIII. Gold. Size 2·6. By E. Hannibal.29

George, Elector of Hanover, was proclaimed King of England 12 Aug. 1714, but he did not arrive in England till 18 Sept. The monster, on which Britannia tramples, is emblematic of the Pretender and his party.

480. Coronation, 1714. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. &c. E. HANNIBAL. Rev. King enthroned r. beneath canopy, crowned by Britannia holding shield. INAVGVRAT. 31/20 OCT. MDCCXIIII. Gold. Size 2. By E. Hannibal.

105

George I. was crowned at Westminster, 20 Oct. 1714 (O. S.).

481. Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland. Battle of Preston, 1715. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. I. C. Rev. Trophy of arms on pedestal; at base of which are seated two naked captives. FIDES MILITVM; in ex., REBELL. AD PRESTON CAPT. 13. NOV. 1715. I. C. Silver. Size 1·8. By J. Croker.

The Earl of Mar having raised the standard of the Pretender in Scotland, a large army under MacIntosh and Forster crossed the Cheviots and advanced as far as Preston, Lancashire, where, being attacked by a force under General Carpenter, 13 Nov. 1715, it surrendered after a very feeble resistance.

482. Battle of Sheriff-Muir, 1715. Obv. Same. Rev. Victory r., with sword and palm, driving before her the cavalry of the rebels. PERJURII ULTRIX; in ex., AD DVNBLAINVM. 13 NOV. 1715. I. C. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Croker.

On the same day that the rebel army surrendered at Preston, the Earl of Mar was defeated by the Duke of Argyll at Sheriff-Muir (Dunblane), near Stirling.

483. War of the Quadruple Alliance: Defeat of Spanish Fleet off Cape Passaro, 1718. Obv. Similar. Rev. Rostral column, surmounted by figure of King holding trident; at base, arms and trophies of war. SOCIORVM PROTECTOR; in ex., CLASSE HISP. DELETA AD ORAS SICILIÆ. 1718. Gold. Size 1·75. By J. Croker.

After the forming of the Quadruple Alliance between England, France, Holland, and Austria, to oppose Spain, who had broken the Treaty of Utrecht by seizing Sardinia, the British fleet under Admiral Byng attacked and defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro, 11 Aug. 1718, destroying a large number of the enemy's ships.

484. Quadruple Alliance: Indecision of the United Provinces, 1720. Obv. France, Austria, and England in chariot on three wheels, drawn by two horses; the fourth wheel is held by Holland, seated l. on lioness, and grasping staff surmounted by cap of Liberty; England invites her to enter the chariot. SISTIT ADHVC QVARTA DEFICIENTE ROTA. Rev. FOEDVS QVADRVPLEX IMPERFECTVM REPVBLICA BATAVA FORTITER PRVDENTERQ. CVNCTANTE. MDCCXX. Silver. Size 2·2. Dutch.

106

This medal refers to the reluctance on the part of Holland to support the other Powers in their effort to carry out the policy of their alliance.

485. Gibraltar attacked, 1727. Obv. Gibraltar besieged by Spanish fleet. VINCERE AVT MORI; in ex., GIBRALTAR OBSESSA. D. XXII. FEBR. MDCCXXVII. Rev. SED DATVR TERTIVM MINVS PERICVLOSVM ABIRE. Silver. Size 1·7.

The alliance concluded between England, France, and Prussia at Hanover, 1725, to obviate the effects of the secret Treaty of Vienna formed by the Emperor and the King of Spain, led to hostilities between England and Spain, which were begun by an unsuccessful attack on Gibraltar, 22 Feb. 1727.

486. Dean Swift, 1716. Bust three-quarters r., in wig and canonicals. IONAT. SWIFT ST. P. ET D. ST. P. IN Hib; below, NON PAREIL. On reverse, I. P. F. (engraved). Enamelled steel. Size 3. Cast. Plaque.

Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, the celebrated political and satirical writer, born 1667, died 1745. This plaque may have served as a cover of a box.

GEORGE II. 1727–1760.

487. Accession to Electorate, &c., 1727. Obv. Bust of King l., laur., wearing armour and cloak. GEORGIVS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. &c. E. HANNIBAL F. Rev. Horse of Brunswick galloping l. over rocks. NEC ASPERA TERRENT (motto); in ex., SVCCESSIO ELECTORALIS. MDCCXXVII. E. H. Silver. Size 2·5. By E. Hannibal.

George I. died at Osnaburg, 11 June, 1727, and his son, George II., was proclaimed King four days afterwards, 15 June.

488. Coronation, 1727. Obv. Bust of King l., laur., wearing armour and cloak. GEORGIVS II. D. G. MAG. BR. FR. ET HIB. REX. I. C. Rev. King enthroned r., crowned by Britannia, holding cornucopiae and resting on fasces. PER POPULOS VOLENTES; in ex., CORON. XI. OCTOB. MDCCXXVII. Gold. Size 1·35. By J. Croker.

George II. was crowned 11 Oct. 1727.

489. Coronation of Queen, 1727. Obv. Bust of Queen l., draped. CAROLINA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. I. C. Rev. Queen 107 facing between Religion holding book and Britannia with spear and shield. HIC AMOR HÆC PATRIA; in ex., CORON. XI. OCTOB. MDCCXXVII. Gold. Size 1·3. By J. Croker.

Caroline, wife of George II., dau. of John Frederic, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, born 1683, mar. 1705, died 1737.

490. The Royal Family of England, 1732. Obv. Busts, face to face, of King in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GEORGIVS II. REX ET CAROLINA REGINA; below, MDCCXXXII; on arm of King, I. C. Rev. Seven busts in profile of the Royal children, the Prince of Wales in centre l., on his arm T. FELICITAS IMPERII; in ex., names of the two Princes and five Princesses. Gold. Size 2·7. By J. Croker and J. Sigmund Tanner.30

The Royal children were Frederic Prince of Wales, William Duke of Cumberland, and the Princesses, Anne, Amelia, Caroline, Mary, and Louisa.

491. Frederic Prince of Wales. Obv. Bust of Prince l., in armour. FREDERIC. WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. J. A. DASSIER. Rev. Coronet, plumes, and motto of Prince of Wales, supported by two infant angels in clouds. Copper. Size 2·1. By J. A. Dassier.31

Frederic, Prince of Wales, born 1707; mar. 1736 Augusta, dau. of Frederic II., Duke of Saxe-Gotha; died 1751.

492. War of Spanish Succession: Second Treaty of Vienna, 1731. Obv. Head of King l.,laur. GEORGIVS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. Rev. Neptune in sea-chariot r., contending with the four winds. PRÆSTAT COMPONERE. (Virg. Aen. i. 139); in ex., FOEDVS VIENNENSE. MDCCXXXI. Gold. Size 1·8. By J. Croker.

The second Treaty of Vienna, between England, France, Spain, Holland, and the Emperor, signed 5 Mar. 1731, 108 terminated the disputes which arose out of the Spanish Succession.

493. War with Spain: Taking of Porto Bello, 1739. Obv. Admiral Vernon towards l., in naval uniform; in background, ship, and Fort Chagree; above which, A VIEW OF FORT CHAGRE. THE BRITISH GLORY REVIV.D (sic) BY ADMIRAL VERNON. Rev. English fleet in Porto Bello harbour. HE TOOK PORTO BELLO WITH SIX SHIPS ONLY; in ex., NOV. 22. 1739. Brass. Size 1·45.

Immediately after the declaration of war against Spain, 19 Oct. 1739, Commodore Anson was sent to blockade the coast of Peru, and Admiral Vernon to attack Porto Bello, which he captured 22 Nov. 1739 with the small force of six men-of-war.

494. Attempt on Carthagena, 1741. Obv. Admiral Vernon towards l., in naval uniform; in the distance, Carthagena. ADM VERNON VIEWING THE TOWN OF CARTHAGENA. Rev. View of harbour of Carthagena; outside, English ships; within, boat, over which DON BLASS.–HE DESTROYD THE FORTS OF CARTHAGENA; in ex., APRIL 1741. Pewter. Size 1·4.

Admiral Vernon attacked Carthagena 4 Mar. 1741, but only succeeded in destroying a portion of its defences. Of this and the previous medal there are a large number of varieties.

495–496. War of the Austrian Succession: Victory of Dettingen, 1743. Obv. Bust of King l., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS II. D. G. MAGN. BRIT. FR. &c. D. HAESLING F. Rev. The King on horseback l., commanding at battle of Dettingen: distant view of engagement. LIBERTAS FAVORE DEI ET VIRTVTE MILITIS RESTITVTA; in ex., AD DETTINGAM. D. XXVII. IVN. MDCCXLIII. Gold and silver. Size 2·6. By D. Haesling.

At Dettingen, George II., with an army of 40,000 English and Hanoverians, defeated the French under the Duc de Noailles and the Duc de Grammont. In consequence of this defeat, the French were compelled to evacuate Germany. This medal was executed by Daniel Haesling, a native of East Gothland and pupil of Hedlinger. He worked chiefly for the kings of Poland and Denmark.

497. Battle of Fontenoy, 1745. Obv. Head of Louis XV. r., bound with diadem. LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS. F. M. Rev. Louis XV. with the Dauphin in triumphal quadriga r., 109 crowned by Victory. DECUS IMPERII GALLICI; in ex., HOSTES AB IPSOMET REGE FUSI AD FONTENOIUM. XI. MAII. MDCCXLV. Copper. Size 1·6. By F. Marteau.

The defeat of the Allies at Fontenoy was mainly due to the flight of the Dutch. The Allies were commanded by the Duke of Cumberland, and the French by Louis XV. and Marshal Saxe. F. Marteau was one of the engravers to Louis XV.

498. Jacobite Rebellion: Battle of Culloden, 1746. Obv. Bust of Duke of Cumberland r., wearing armour and lion's skin. GULIELMUS GEOR. II. R. FIL. DUX CUMBRIÆ; on arm, R. YEO F. Rev. Hercules raising Britannia l., and trampling on Rebellion holding serpents. PERDVELLIB. EX ANG. FVGAT. AD CULLOD. DEBELLAT. 16. APR. 1746. Gold. Size 2. By R. Yeo.

By the battle of Culloden, 16 Apr. 1746, in which the Scots, under Prince Charles Edward and Lord G. Murray, were defeated by the Duke of Cumberland, the cause of the Jacobites was hopelessly crushed. This medal is by Richard Yeo, who for many years during the reign of George II. was employed as one of the assistant engravers at the Royal Mint.

499. War of the Austrian Succession: Naval engagement off Cape Finisterre, 1747. Obv. Head of Admiral Anson l., crowned by Victory, standing on prow. GEORGE LORD ANSON. VICT. MAY III. MDCCXLVII. T. PINGO F. Rev. Victory with wreath and trophy towards l., standing on sea-monster above globe. CIRCVMNAVIGATION; around, each within laurel-wreath, names of SAVNDERS, BRETT, DENNIS, CAMPBELL, KEPPEL, SAVMAREZ. MDCCXL. MDCCXLIV. Gold. Size 1·65. By T. Pingo.32

This medal commemorates the defeat of the French fleet off Cape Finisterre, 3 May, 1747, by Admiral Lord Anson.

500. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748. Obv. Priestess l., sacrificing at altar; above, in clouds, female figure holding cornucopiae, olive-branch, and scales; on l., lion of Holland resting on Bible and holding staff with cap of Liberty. E SVPERIS ASTRÆA REDVX BONA SÆCVLA REDDENS; in ex., PAX AQVISGRANI SANCITA ANNO LIB. IVBILÆO. 110 MDCCXLVIII. Rev. Eight shields crowned, attached to orange-branches and lilies–arms of England, France, Empire, Spain, Holland, Sardinia, Italy, and Prussia; in centre, burning heart, pierced with arrows. REDUNIVNTVR. Silver. Size 1·7.

By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the war of the Austrian Succession was brought to an end. The treaty was signed by all the belligerent parties, in October 1748, Sardinia excepted. This medal was executed in Holland.

501. Conquest of Canada: Louisburg taken, 1758. Obv. Globe, inscribed CANADA. AMERICA, resting on prostrate fury at edge of rock, who drops fleur-de-lis and points to boats in sea; on either side of globe, Grenadier and Canadian; above, Fame l., English flag and scroll inscribed, PARITER IN BELLA. T. PINGO F. Rev. Louisburg bombarded. LOVISBOVRG TAKEN. MDCCLVIII: edge engraved with names of Boscawen, Amherst, and Pitt. Silver. Size 1·7. By T. Pingo.

Louisburg was captured from the French, 27 July, 1758. Generals Amherst and Wolfe commanded the land forces, and Admiral Boscawen the fleet.

502. Taking of Quebec, 1759. Obv. Head of Britannia l., bound with fillet; above, BRITANNIA; below, laurel-wreath, uniting trident and standard. SAVNDERS. WOLFE. Rev. Victory l., crowning trophy; at base, captive seated bound, and prow of ship. QVEBEC TAKEN. MDCCLIX.; in ex., SOC. P. A. C. Silver. Size 1·5.

On 13 Sep. 1759, the heights of Abraham above Quebec were captured by Wolfe, who was killed in the action. The town of Quebec surrendered five days afterwards. Admiral Saunders commanded the fleet. This medal and the following (Nos. 503–5) were issued by the Society for the Promotion of Arts and Commerce.

503. Canada Subdued, 1760. Obv. Head of King l., laur. GEORGE II. KING. Rev. Weeping female figure seated r. beneath pine-tree; on the other side, beaver. CANADA SUBDUED; in ex., MDCCLX. S. P. A. C. Silver. Size 1·5.

After the capture of Quebec, it was arranged that the garrison should be conveyed to the nearest French port. In the following year the conquest of the whole of Canada was completed. The reverse type of this medal is suggested by the well-known "Judaea Capta" on Roman coins.

504. War of East India Company: Victory of Plassy, 1757. Obv. Victory, with trophy and palm, on elephant l. 111 VICTORY AT PLASSY CLIVE COMMANDER; in ex., MDCCLVIII. SOC. P. A. C. Rev. Clive in dress of Roman warrior l., holding standard in l. hand and presenting sceptre of Nawab (Nabob) of Bengal to Meer Jaafar (Jaffier); between them, globe, cornucopiae, and rudder. INIVRIES ATTONED PRIVILEGE AVGMENTED TERRITORY ACQVIRED. A SOVBAH GIVEN TO BENGAL. MDCCLVIII. Silver. Size 1·5.

This medal records the defeat of Siraj-ed-dawleh (Surajah Dowlah) at Plassy by Clive, 23 June, 1757, and the appointment of Meer Jaafar to be his successor as Nawab (Nabob) of Bengal, &c.

505. War in Africa: Taking of Goree, 1758. Obv. Head of Britannia, l.; behind, trident. O FAIR BRITANNIA HAIL. Rev. Victory with wreath and palm on prow, r. GOREE TAKEN. MDCCLVIII. Silver. Size 1·55.

The island of Goree was captured from the French by Commodore Keppel, 28 Dec. 1758.

506. Seven Years' War: Battle of Minden, 1759. Obv. Mars with scourge and shield, surrounded by French arms and flags, dispersing enemy, who are seen flying in the distance. VIRTVTI CEDIT NVMERVS; in ex., PROELIVM MINDENSE. I. AVG. MDCCLIX. I. G. HOLTZHEY FEC. Rev. View of the valley of the Weser; in foreground, olive-tree entwined with vine; at base, keys in mural crowns and wheat-sheaves. POST TOT DISCRIMINA RERVM. (Virg. Aen. i. 408); in ex., FERD. PR. BRVNSV. EXERC. FOED. DVX. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. G. Holtzhey.33

At the battle of Minden, 31 July, 1759, the French, under Marshal Contades and the Duke de Broglie, were defeated by the Hanoverians and English, commanded by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick and Lord George Sackville. Nothing but the refusal of Lord Sackville to complete the victory by a charge of Ferdinand's horse saved the French from utter rout.

507. Another. Obv. Bust of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick r., in armour and cloak. FERD. OF BRVNSWICK; on arm, KIRK. 112 Rev. View of battle; Prince Ferdinand in foreground commanding. PROTESTANTS REIOICING; in ex., THE FRENCH BEATEN AT MINDEN. MDCCLIX. Silver. Size 1·4. By John Kirk.

John Kirk's work dates from the second half of the 18th cent. He executed a large number of medalets.

508. Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, 1744. Obv. Bust l., wearing star and ribbon of Garter. ROBERTUS WALPOLE. A. DASSIER F. Rev. Within ornamented border, COMES DE ORFORD. MDCCXLIV. Copper. Size 2·15. By J. A. Dassier.

Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, statesman, b. 1676, Secretary for War 1708, Treasurer of the Navy 1709, Chancellor of the Exchequer and First Lord of the Treasury 1715–17, Paymaster of the Forces 1720, Prime Minister 1721–1742; d. 1745.

509. Lord Carteret, 1744. Obv. Bust r., in civilian's dress. IOHANNES CARTERET. A. DASSIER F. Rev. Within ornamented border, BARO DE CARTERET. MDCCXLIV. Copper. Size 2·1. By J. A. Dassier.

Lord John Carteret, aft. Earl Granville, statesman, b. 1690, Second Sec. of State 1721, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1724–26 and again 1729–30, First Secretary of State 1742–1744; d. 1763.

510. Earl of Chesterfield, 1743. Obv. Bust l., wearing star and ribbon. PHILIPPUS STANHOPE, I. A. DASSIER F. Rev. Within ornamented border, COMES DE CHESTERFIELD. MDCCXLIII. Copper. Size 2·1. By J. A. Dassier.

Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, statesman and writer, b. 1694, Ambassador at the Hague 1728 and 1745, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1745, Second Sec. of State 1746: assisted in the Reformation of the Calendar 1752; d. 1773.

511. Earl of Chatham. Obv. Bust l., in tie-wig and civilian's dress. GVLIELMVS PITT; on arm, T. PINGO F. Rev. THE MAN WHO HAVING SAVED THE PARENT PLEADED WITH SUCCESS FOR HER CHILDREN. Silver. Size 1·55. By T. Pingo.

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, statesman, b. 1708, Vice-Treasurer for Ireland 1746, Paymaster-General of the Army 1747–55, First Secretary of State 1756 and again 113 1757–1761, Lord Privy Seal and Prime Minister 1766–68; d. 1778.

This medal refers to Chatham's foreign policy and desire to stop England's contest with her colonies.

512. General Wolfe, 1759. Obv. Bust l., in armour and cloak. IACOBUS WOLFE ANGLUS. GOSSET M. KIRK F. Rev. Urn on pedestal, inscribed, PRO PATRIA; above, laurel-wreath; around, arms and flags. IN VICTORIA CÆSVS; in ex., QVEBECÆ. SEPT. XIII. MDCCLIX. Silver. Size 1·4. By C. Gosset and J. Kirk.

Major-General James Wolfe, b. 1726, served at Dettingen, Fontenoy, Falkirk, and Culloden; commanded in Canada, and was killed in the attack on Quebec, 13 Sept. 1759.

513. Lord Clive, 1766. Obv. Bust, three-quarters l., wearing embroidered coat and ribbon and star. ROBERT CLIVE BARON OF PLASSEY. I. U. N. F. Rev. Fame facing, pointing at obelisk, inscribed with achievements of Clive. HONOUR THE REWARD OF MERIT; in ex., ANNO 1766. C. G. Copper. Size 1·6. By C. Gosset.

Robert Lord Clive, b. 1725, in service of the East India Company, defeated Siraj-ed-dawleh (Surajah Dowlah), Nawab (Nabob) of Bengal, at Plassey, 23 June, 1757; Governor and Commander-in-chief in Bengal 1764–67; d. 1774.

GEORGE III 1760–1820.

514. Marriage, 1761. Obv. Busts of King and Queen, as Greek Sovereigns, jugate r. GEORG. III. SOPH. CAROL. M. B. F. ET H. REX ET REGINA; on shoulder, A. Rev. Britannia burning incense at tripod, and holding staff with cap of Liberty; in the distance, ship. VOTA BRITANNIÆ; in ex., FELICI VINCULO IUNCTI. D. X. SEPT. MDCCLXI. Gold. Size 1·65. By J. Abraham.34

George III. married, 8 Sep. 1761, Sophia Charlotte, dau. of the Duke of Mecklenburg Strelitz. The date is incorrectly given on the medal.

515. Coronation, 1761. Obv. Bust of King r., laur., in armour, and cloak. GEORGIVS III. D. G. M. BRI. FRA. ET HIB. 114 REX F. D.; on arm, L. N. Rev. King in Roman dress, laur., seated l., crowned by Britannia; at her side, shield and trident; on r., lion with orb. PATRIAE OVANTI; in ex., CORON. XXII. SEPT. MDCCLXI. L. N. Gold. Size 1·3. By J. L. Natter.35

George III., eldest son of Frederic Prince of Wales, succeeded to the throne 22 Oct. 1760. He was crowned 22 Sep. 1761.

516. Another. Obv. Bust of King l., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS TERTIVS REX. Rev. Bust of Queen r., draped. CHARLOTTA BRITANNIÆ REGINA. NUPT. SEP. VIII. CORO. XXII. MDCCLXI. Silver. Size 1·6. By J. Kirk.

517. Seven Years' War: Peace of Paris, &c., 1763. Obv. Two military figures (Mars and Austria) conducting Prussia helmeted to Temple of Janus, surmounted by arms of Russia and ornamented with various shields; within temple, Neptune and Sol sacrificing; on step of temple, SVVM CVIQVE. ADES PAX ET TOTO MITIS IN ORBE MANE. MDCCLXIII. I. G. HOLTZHEY FEC. Rev. Latin inscription detailing treaties entered upon by the different Powers at the end of the Seven Years' War. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. G. Holtzhey.

The treaties which terminated the Seven Years' War were a compact between Russia and Prussia, 5 May, 1762; another between Prussia and Sweden, 22 May, 1762; another, called the Peace of Paris, between England, France, Spain, and Portugal, 10/16 Feb. 1763; and the last, called the Peace of Hubertsburg, between Austria, Prussia, and Saxony, 18 Feb. 1763.

518. Prosecution of the "North Briton," No. 45, 1763. Obv. Bust of Wilkes, three-quarters l., wearing robes of Lord Mayor. I. WILKES ESQ LORD MAYOR. 1774. Rev. Axe and jack-boot with head of Lord Bute. BRITONS STRIKE HOME. Copper. Size 1·7. Cast.

John Wilkes, Alderman of London and M.P. for Aylesbury, was imprisoned under a general warrant for a libel on the King's Speech published in the "North Briton," 115 No. 45, 1763. General warrants being declared illegal, Wilkes was released. The head in the jack-boot was a rustic pun on the name of John Earl of Bute, Prime Minister 1762–3. The axe suggests treason. This medal was executed when Wilkes became Lord Mayor of London, 1774.

519. Captain Cook's Second Voyage, 1772. Obv. Head of King r., laur. GEORGE III. KING OF GR. BRITAIN FRANCE AND IRELAND ETC. B. F. Rev. Two ships on sea. RESOLVTION ADVENTVRE–SAILED FROM ENGLAND. MARCH. MDCCLXXII. Gold. Size 1·7. By Barnett.

In his second voyage round the world, Captain James Cook, the navigator (b. 1728; d. 1779), commanded the Resolution, and was accompanied by the Adventure. He left in March 1772, and, after visiting New Zealand and passing Cape Horne, returned in July 1774.

520. Another. Obv. Bust l., in naval uniform. IAC. COOK OCEANI INVESTIGATOR ACERRIMVS. REG. SOC. LOND. SOCIO SVO. L. P. F. Rev. Fortune l., leaning on rostral column, holding rudder on globe, and spear; near her, shield. NIL INTENTATVM NOSTRI LIQVERE. (Hor. Ep. ad Pis. 285); in ex., AVSPICIIS GEORGII III. Gold. Size 1·65. By L. Pingo.

On his return from his second voyage in 1774, Captain Cook was elected a member of the Royal Society, and in 1776 he received its Copley medal in gold for brilliant discoveries. This medal is by Lewis Pingo, who for many years during the reign of George III. was Chief Engraver to the Royal Mint.

521. No Popery Riots, 1779–80. Obv. Bust of Lord George Gordon l., in broad-brimmed hat and coat. Rev. LORD GEORGE GORDON. 1780. Copper. Size 1·15.

In consequence of a Bill before Parliament to relieve Roman Catholics of certain penalties and disabilities, serious riots took place in Scotland and England, 1779–80. These riots were stimulated by the Protestant Association, of which Lord George Gordon was president.

522. American War: Paul Jones: Attacks on Scottish Coast, 1779. Obv. Bust of Paul Jones r., in naval uniform. JOANNI PAVLO JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO. COMITIA AMERICANA. DUPRÉ F. Rev. Naval engagement. 116 HOSTIVM NAVIBVS CAPTIS AVT FVGATIS; in ex., AD ORAM SCOTIAE. XXIII. SEPT. MDCCLXXVIIII. DUPRÉ F. Copper. Size 2·2. By A. Dupré.36

In the autumn of 1779 Scotland was much alarmed by the daring exploits of Captain John Paul Jones, who in command of an American squadron attacked her coasts, captured numerous prizes, and even threatened Edinburgh. This medal records the capture, on 13 Sep. 1779, of the English frigate Serapis, Captain Pearson, by the Bon Homme Richard, commanded by Captain Paul Jones, to whom it was awarded, in gold.

523. Defeat of Royal Forces at Cowpens, 1781. Obv. English cavalry flying before American; Lieut.-Colonel Washington on horseback l., commanding; above, Victory with wreath and palms. GULIELMO WASHINGTON LEGIONIS EQUIT. PRÆFECTO; in ex., COMITIA AMERICAN, DU V. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, inscription in Latin, giving date of battle of Cowpens, XVII. JAN. MDCCLXXXI. &c. Copper. Size 2·8. By B. Du Vivier.37

On 17 Jan. 1781, Colonel Tarleton, who commanded the British troops, was defeated at a place called Cowpens by a force under General Morgan and Lieut.-Colonel Washington, nephew of the Commander-in-chief.

524. Prosecution of the War with America, 1781. Obv. Bust of King l., laur., in armour and cloak. GEORGIUS III. REX ANG. Rev. Lion l., bursting his bonds. INDOCILIS PATI; in ex., IN PERPET. MEMOR. MDCCLXXXI. Silver. Size 2·1.

This medal illustrates the determination of England to prosecute the war with America to the "bitter end." The independence of the Colonies was, however, acknowledged in the following year, 30 Nov. 1782, by the Treaty of Paris.

525. War with Holland: Capture of the Island of St. Eustatius, 1781. Obv. Bust of Admiral Rodney r., in naval uniform. G. B. RODNEY. Rev. Within oak-wreath, IN MEMORY OF THE GLORIOUS 3RD. FEBRY. 1781 WHEN S GEORGE PUNISH'D THE DUTCH &c. &c. Silver. Size 1·35.

Holland having formed a secret treaty with the United States, a declaration of war was proclaimed in London, 117 and on 3 Feb. 1781 Admiral Sir George Rodney captured from the Dutch the rich Island of St. Eustatius, in the West Indies. It was recaptured by the French in the following year.

526. Action off Cadiz, 1781: Capture of the Castor. Obv. Ships on sea; one sinking. VIS VI FORTITER REPULSA; in ex., PROPE GADES. XXX. MAY. MDCCLXXXI. Rev. Trophy of three shields, arms of Holland and of the Dutch ships the Castor and Brill? surmounted by naval crown, anchors, and two flags inscribed, P. MELVILL NAVARCHUS, and G. OORTHUIS NAVARCH.; sun rising. ANTIQVA VIRTVTE DVVMVIRI; below, festoons with lion's head in centre. I. G. HOLTZHEY FEC. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. G. Holtzhey.

This medal commemorates the action on 30 May, 1781, between the English ships, the Flora and Crescent, and the Dutch ships, the Castor and Brill. The fight ended in the capture of the Castor, commanded by Capt. Melvill. Capt. Oorthuis commanded the Brill.

527. Action off Dogger Bank, 1781. Obv. Victory r., holding wreath and palm, on prow inscribed, DOGGERS BANK–PAX QVAERITVR BELLO. V. AVG. MDCCLXXXI. S. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, EXIMIAE VIRTVTIS PRAEMIVM; around, MVNIFICENTIA PRINCIPIS AVRIACI. Gold. Size 1·4; with ring for suspension.

This medal was executed by order of the Prince of Orange to commemorate the action off Dogger Bank, 5 Aug. 1781, between the English fleet under Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and the Dutch under Admiral Zoutman. Both sides fought with the determination of former days, but neither obtained any actual advantage.

528. War with Spain: Siege of Gibraltar, 1782. Obv. View of Gibraltar besieged. PER TOT DISCRIMINA RERUM. (Virg. Aen. i. 208); XIII. SEPT. MDCCLXXXII. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, REDEN, LAMOTTE, SYDOW, ELIOTT; around, BRUDERSCHAFT. L. PINGO F. Gold. Size 1·9. By L. Pingo.

Gibraltar had suffered a siege of three years, when the Spaniards determined to make a supreme effort to capture the place by means of floating batteries constructed by the French engineer D'Arcon. The great attack was made 13 Sep. 1782, but failed, the batteries being totally destroyed by red-hot cannon balls. The fortress was defended by General Elliot, who ordered this medal to be struck for presentation to the Hanoverian Brigade, which took part in the defence. 118

529. General Elliot. Defender of Gibraltar, 1782. Obv. Bust l., in military uniform, wearing order of Garter. GEORGE AUGUSTUS ELIOTT GOVERNOR OF GIBRALTAR. J. P. DROZ F. Rev. Hercules, with apples of the Hesperides and club, facing; beside him, pillar, another beyond, the sea between; in the distance, Gibraltar. FORTITER ET RECTE; in ex., XIII. SEPT. MDCCLXXXII. DROZ F. Copper. Size 2·35. By J. P. Droz.38

General George Augustus Elliot, Lord Heathfield, born 1718, entered the army 1735; was present at Dettingen 1743; appointed Commander-in-chief in Ireland 1775, and soon afterwards Governor of Gibraltar, which he defended in the long siege from 1779 to 1783; created 1787 Lord Heathfield, Baron Gibraltar; died 1790. The rock of Calpe (Gibraltar) on the Spanish coast, with the opposite one of Abyla on the African coast, formed the renowned "Pillars of Hercules," so called from the myth that he tore asunder the mountain which closed the Straits.

530. Recovery of the King, 1789. Obv. Head of King r., laur. GEORGIVS III. MAGN. BR. FR. &c. Rev. West front of St. Paul's Cathedral. LÆTITIA CVM PIETATE.–DEO OPT. MAX. REX. PIENTISS. PRO SALVTE REST. V.S.L. M. AP. 23. 1789; edge inscribed. Gold. Size 2·1.

In 1788 the King was attacked with a violent illness, which terminated in symptoms of lunacy. He recovered in the following year, and a public thanksgiving was held at St. Paul's, 23 April, 1789. This medal was "struck by order of the Patrons of the anniversary meeting, who assembled with 5000 children on the happy event."

531. War with France: "Victory of the 1st June," 1794. Obv. Bust of Admiral Howe l., in naval uniform and cloak. RIC. COMES HOWE VICE-ADMIRALLUS ANGLIÆ &c. BARNETT. Rev. Neptune in sea-chariot l., presenting trident to Britannia, seated l. on rock; in background, Victory r. inscribing obelisk with names of Howe and the other commanders; ships in action. NON NOBIS SED PATRIÆ; in ex., MDCCXCIIII. 1ST. JUNE. Barnett. Silver. Size 2·2. By Barnett.

119

On the 1st June, 1794, Admiral Lord Howe, who commanded the Channel Fleet, fell in with the French fleet off Brest, under Jean Bon St. André. After an hour's hard fighting Howe broke the enemy's line, capturing seven ships and sinking another. For this victory the Admiral received the thanks of Parliament, &c.

532. Marriage of George Prince of Wales with Caroline of Brunswick, 1795. Obv. Bust of Prince, three quarters r., in civilian's dress, wearing star of Garter; around, border of oak-leaves and ribbon inscribed, GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES, &c. Rev. Inscription with dates of birth of Prince, 12 Aug. 1762, and his marriage, 8 Apr. 1795. Silver. Size 1·8. By Whitley of Old Bond Street.

George (IV.) Prince of Wales mar. 8 April, 1795, Princess Caroline Amelia Elizabeth, dau. of the Duke of Brunswick.

533. Another. Obv. Busts of Prince and Princess jugate r. GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES ET CAROLINE PRINC.; on arm of Prince, C. H. K. Rev. FROGMORE. MAY 19 1795; beneath, oak-branches crossing. SOHO. Silver. Size 1·85. By C. H. Küchler.

This medal was struck upon the occasion of the visit of the Prince and Princess to Frogmore after their marriage. C. H. Küchler, a native of Flanders, was employed by Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham.

534. War with France: Defeat of French fleet off Port d'Orient by Admiral Hood, Lord Bridport, 1795. Obv. Bust of Hood r., in naval uniform. A. A. HOOD LORD BRIDPORT ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE, P. K; on arm, HANCOCK. Rev. Victory facing, holding naval crown and French flags, alighting on rock; in the distance, ships. Inscription giving number of ships engaged and captured; and in ex., 23 JUNE 1795. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

On 23 June, 1795, a portion of the Channel fleet under Admiral Hood attacked a part of the Brest fleet under Vice-Admiral Villaret, off Port d'Orient. The enemy was obliged to seek shelter in their port, with the loss of three ships and 228 guns.

535. French Expedition to Bantry Bay, 1797. Obv. Within wreath, FRIENDLY ASSOCIATION. BANTRY GARRISON; in centre, crown. Rev. Ships in storm. AFFLAVIT DEUS ET DISSIPANTUR; in ex., JAN. MDCCXCVII. MOSSOP. Copper. Size 1·55. By W. Mossop.

120

After the successes of Bonaparte, the Directory determined to make a descent upon Ireland. The expedition, consisting of 17 sail of the line and 13 frigates and transports, conveying 20,000 men, set sail from Brest 19 Dec. 1796. The fleet was scattered by a severe storm, and only a few ships reached Bantry Bay 24 Dec., and these returned without making any attempt to land.

536. Engagement off Cape St. Vincent, 1797. Obv. Bust of Jervis l., in naval uniform, &c. JOHN JERVIS EARL OF S VINCENT ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE. BORN JANUARY 26 1735; on arm, HANCOCK. Rev. Spain seated r. on rock, weeping, leaning on shield; in the distance, naval battle. Inscription giving number of ships engaged and captured; and in ex., FEBRUARY 14. 1797. P. K. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

An alliance having been entered into between France, Spain, and Holland, a joint invasion of England was projected, and fleets were equipped at Brest, Cadiz, and the Texel. The attempt was fruitless in each case: the French fleet was dispersed at Bantry Bay (see No. 535); the Spanish fleet was defeated by Admiral Jervis off Cape St. Vincent, 14 Feb. 1797; and that of the Dutch by Admiral Duncan off Camperdown, 11 Oct. 1797. (See No. 537.) For the victory off Cape St. Vincent, Jervis was created Earl St. Vincent, &c.

537. Engagement off Camperdown, 1797. Obv. Bust of Duncan r., in naval uniform, wearing medal, &c. ADAM LORD VISCOUNT DUNCAN ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE. BORN JULY 1, 1731; on arm, HANCOCK; below, P. K. Rev. Sailor nailing English flag to mast-head. Inscription with date of engagement, OCTOBER 11. 1797, and number of ships engaged; in ex., HEROIC COURAGE PROTECTS THE BRITISH FLAG. HANCOCK. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

In this engagement with the Dutch fleet the English captured 12 ships of the line, three of which immediately sank. Admiral Duncan was created Viscount Duncan of Camperdown.

538. Another. Obv. Bust of Onslow, three-quarters l., in naval uniform and wearing medal. SIR RICHARD ONSLOW BART. ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE. BORN 23 JUNE 1741; on arm, HANCOCK. Rev. View of engagement, the fleets contending in line. SECOND IN COMMAND OCTO. 11. 1797; in ex., IN THE MONARCH OF 74 GUNS BROKE THE 121 REAR OF THE DUTCH LINE & TOOK THE ADMIRALS SHIP. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

Admiral Sir Richard Onslow was second in command at the battle off Camperdown.

539. Victory of the Nile, 1798. Obv. Medallion with portrait of Nelson, held by Britannia l., standing on rock near sea; in her r. hand, laurel-branch; at her side, anchor. REAR ADMIRAL LORD NELSON OF THE NILE. C. H. K. Rev. English and French fleets drawn up in semicircle in Aboukir Bay. ALMIGHTY GOD HAS BLESSED HIS MAJESTY'S ARMS; in ex., VICTORY OF THE NILE. AUGUST 1. 1798. M. B. SOHO. C. H. KÜCHLER FEC. Edge engraved, FROM ALEX? DAVISON ESQ? S? JAMES'S SQUARE. A TRIBUTE OF REGARD. Gold. Size 1·95. By C. H. Küchler.

In the battle of the Nile, which was fought in Aboukir Bay, 1 Aug. 1798, the French fleet which had conveyed Napoleon and his troops to Egypt was, with the exception of four vessels, either taken or destroyed by Admiral Nelson, who for this victory was raised to the peerage. This medal was presented by Mr. Davison to every officer and seaman engaged in the battle: in gold, to the admirals, commanders, and captains: in silver, to lieutenants and warrant officers; in bronze-gilt, to petty officers; and in bronze, to seamen and marines.

540. Attempted Assassination of the King, 1800. Obv. Bust of King l., in armour and cloak. GEORGIUS III. D. G. MAGN. BRIT. FR. &c. C. H. KÜCHLER F. Rev. Lighted altar, inscribed D. O. M.; above, radiate Eye. REGE INCOLUMI POPULUS LAETUS; in ex., A SICARIO SERVATUS. MAI. XV. MDCCC. Silver. Size 1·9. By C. H. Küchler.

On 15 May, 1800, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a discharged soldier, James Hadfield, to shoot the King, as he was entering his box at Drury Lane Theatre.

541. Union with Ireland, 1801. Obv. Bust of King l., in armour and cloak. GEORGIUS III. D. G. BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEF. &c. C. H. K. Rev. Britannia and Hibernia, with their shields, &c., grasping right hands. JUNGUNTUR OPES FIRMATUR IMPERIUM; in ex., I. JAN. MDCCCI. C. H. KÜCHLER FC. Silver. Size 1·9. By C. H. Küchler.

By the Act of Union, 1 Jan. 1801, the parliaments and churches of England and Ireland were united, and freedom of trade was established. 122

542. War with France: Battle of Alexandria, 1801. Obv. Bust of Abercrombie facing, head l., in uniform. SIR RALPH ABERCROMBIE K.B. LIEUTENANT GENERAL. Rev. Britannia reclining, weeping at base of monument inscribed, WOUNDED MAR. 21. DIED MAR. 28. 1801; in the distance, battle. FRENCH DEFEATED. MAR. 21. 1801. Copper. Size 1·55.

At the battle of Alexandria, 21 March, 1801, the French under Menon were defeated by the English, who were commanded by Sir Ralph Abercrombie. Abercrombie was wounded in the action and expired seven days afterwards.

543. Peace of Amiens, 1802. Obv. King r., holding trident and shield, crowned by Victory with palm. REGNO PACEM OBTULIT; in ex., SUPER PACE RATA DIE 27. MARTII. HANCOCK. Rev. View of St. Paul's. DEO GLORIAM REFERT; in ex., PAX CELEBRATA DIE I. JUNII. MDCCCII.: K. & K. H. Silver-gilt. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

The Treaty of Amiens, concluded 27 Mar. 1802, between England, France, Spain, and Holland, restored peace to Europe. A public thanksgiving was held in England, 1st June following.

544. War with France and Spain: Victory of Trafalgar, 1805. Obv. Bust of Nelson l., in naval uniform. HORATIO VISCOUNT NELSON K.B. DUKE OF BRONTE &c.; on arm, C. H. K. Rev. Naval engagement. ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY; in ex., TRAFALGAR OCT? 21. 1805. Edge engraved, TO THE HEROES OF TRAFALGAR. FROM M. BOULTON. Silver-gilt. Size 1·85. By C. H. Küchler.

At the battle of Trafalgar the French and Spanish fleets under Villeneuve and Gravina were defeated by the English under Nelson, who was killed in the action. Twenty of the enemy's ships struck, and Villeneuve and the two Spanish admirals and 20,000 prisoners fell into the hands of the victors. This medal was presented by Mr. Boulton to every officer and seaman engaged in the battle. It was issued in silver, bronze-gilt, bronze, and white metal.

545. Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera, 1809. Obv. Bust of Wellington r., in military uniform. ARTHUR DUKE OF WELLINGTON. MILLS F. MUDIE. Rev. Victory facing, head l., giving wreath to lion, but withholding another from eagle. 123 BATTLE OF TALAVERA. 1809. LA FITTE. MUDIE D. Copper. Size 1·6. By Mills and Lafitte.

The battle of Talavera, 27 July, 1809, was the first of the great victories of Wellington in the Peninsula. The French were commanded by Joseph Bonaparte, Victor and Sebastiani, and the Allies by Wellington and Cuesta. For this victory Wellington, then Sir Arthur Wellesley, was raised to the peerage. This is one of the series of National Medals issued under the direction of James Mudie in 1820, "to commemorate the succession of victories achieved by British arms over Napoleon." A number of English and foreign artists were employed in the accomplishment of this work.

546. Lines of Torres Vedras, 1810–1811. Obv. Wellington in military dress, seated l. within tent, and studying map. FABIUS CUNCTATOR. PETIT F. Rev. Tagus reclining l.; behind, orange-tree and tents. LINES OF TORRES VEDRAS–THE ENGLISH ARMY ON THE TAGUS. 1810–1811. MUDIE D. DUBOIS F. Copper. Size 1·6. By Petit and Dubois.

After the battle of Busaco, Wellington retired for winter-quarters into the Lines of Torres Vedras, which he entered 8 Oct. 1810; a position which Massena, who commanded the "army of Portugal," found impregnable. Wellington is naturally compared to Fabius Cunctator, whose delays baffled Hannibal.

547. Battle of Salamanca and Entry into Madrid, 1812. Obv. Soldiers advancing r., towards mountains, up which ascend horsemen and military train, against whom Victory l. hurls lightnings. JULY XXII. MDCCCXII. SALAMANCA. MUDIE D. Rev. Wellington on horseback l., receiving garland from Spaniards. THE BRITISH ARMY ENTERS MADRID. AVG. XII. MDCCCXII. BRENET F. Copper. Size 1·6. By Brenet.

After the battle of Salamanca, in which Marmont was defeated by Wellington, the latter, hearing that Joseph Bonaparte was threatening his rear, turned upon him and pursued him to Madrid, which he entered 12 Aug. 1812. The French garrison surrendered, and 180 guns with 20,000 stand of arms were captured.

548. Victories up to Salamanca and Entry into Madrid, 1812. Obv. Head of Wellington l., bare. LIEUT. GEN. MARQUIS WELLINGTON K.B. &c. &c. MDCCCXII. 124 T. WYON F. Rev. Column inscribed with names of victories, and ornamented with shields of England, Portugal, and Spain; around base, French arms and standard. ENTER'D MADRID AUGUST XII. P. W. F. Copper. Size 1·75. By T. and P. Wyon.39

The victories in the Peninsula were Vimiera, 21 Aug. 1808; Talavera, 26–28 July, 1809; Busaco, 27 Sep. 1810; Ciudad Rodrigo captured 19 Jan. 1812; Badajoz captured 7 Apr. 1812; and Salamanca, 22 July, 1812. 125

549. War with America: Action between "Wasp" and "Frolic," 1812. Obv. Bust of Capt. James Jones r., in naval uniform. JACOBUS JONES VIRTUS IN ARDUA TENDIT. FURST F. Rev. Engagement between the "Wasp" and "Frolic." VICTORIAM HOSTI MAJORI CELERRIME RAPUIT; in ex., INTER WASP NAV. AMERI. ET FROLIC NAV. ANG. DIE XVIII. OCT. MDCCCXII. FURST F. Silver. Size 2·55. By–Furst.

On 18 Oct. 1812, after a short resistance the British ship "Frolic," commanded by Capt. Whingates, surrendered to the American ship "Wasp," under the command of Capt. James Jones, to whom this medal in gold was awarded. Silver medals were presented to the other commissioned officers.

550. George (IV.) Prince of Wales, Regent, 1814. Head of Prince r., laur. GEORGIVS PRINCEPS WALLIÆ PATRIAM PRO PATRE REGENS. MDCCCXIIII; on arm, I. BARBER F. &c. No reverse. Silver-gilt. Size 2·75. Plaque by J. Barber.

On account of the ill-health of George III., the Prince of Wales was appointed Regent by a Bill passed 5 Feb. 1811.

551. Peace of Paris, 1814. Obv. Head of Britannia l., wearing crested helmet ornamented with lion and olive-wreath. BRITANNIA. J. MUDIE DT. Rev. Hercules facing, wearing lion's skin, trampling on French standard and resting on club. THE REPOSE OF HERCULES. MDCCCXIIII. DROZ F. MUDIE D. Silver. Size 1·6. By J. P. Droz.

The defeat and abdication of Napoleon was followed by the Peace of Paris, signed 23 Apr. and confirmed 30 May, 1814, between Louis XVIII. and the Allies, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia.

552. The Waterloo Medal designed by Pistrucci. Obv. Jugate busts l., laur., of the Prince Regent, Francis II., Emperor of Austria, Alexander I., Emperor of Russia, and Frederick William III., King of Prussia; on either side, Justice l., and Hercules r., seated; above, the Sun in quadriga l., preceded by Castor and Pollux, and followed by Iris and Zephyrus; beneath, Night in Biga r.; before her, the Furies; behind her, the Fates, PISTRUCCI. Rev. Wellington and Blucher on horseback l., guided by Victory between them; Wellington gallops in advance, and Blucher rushes to his aid; above, Jupiter in quadriga, facing, hurling thunderbolt at giants arranged in circle, PISTRUCCI. Copper. Size 5·3. By B. Pistrucci.40

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This medal was executed in pursuance of an order given by the Prince Regent in 1819, who desired to commemorate the battle of Waterloo by the production of a medal of surpassing magnitude and beauty. It was intended for presentation to each of the allied sovereigns as well as to the two commanders, Wellington and Blucher; but this object failed, as Pistrucci, who was directed to execute the work, did not accomplish the task till 1st January, 1849, and Wellington then alone survived. This medal has not been issued, as the dies have never been hardened; but it has been reproduced by the electro process, of which the above is an example.

553. Duke of Wellington, 1810. Obv. Head r., bare. LIEUT. GEN. LORD VISCOUNT WELLINGTON K.B. MDCCCX. T. WYON JUR. F. Rev. Victory r., on mountain, holding wreath and palm; at her side, shield, arms of St. George and Portugal impaled; at her feet, broken French standard. T. WYON JU? FECIT. Copper. Size 1·95. By T. Wyon, jun.

Arthur, Duke of Wellington, general and statesman, b. 1769, raised to the peerage as Viscount 1809, created Marquis 1812, Duke 1814, d. 14 Sep. 1852. This medal was struck about the time of the battle of Busaco and of Wellington's famous defence in the lines of Torres Vedras, 1810–11.

554. Sir John Moore, 1809. Obv. Head l., bare. LIEUT. GENERAL SIR J. MOORE K.B. MILLS F. Rev. Soldiers defending wounded comrade against attack of eagle with thunderbolt; in background, prow of ship. DEATH OF SIR JOHN MOORE; in ex., CORUNNA. 16 JANUARY 1809. MUDIE D. COURIGUER SC. Copper. Size 1·6. By Mills and Couriguer.

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Sir John Moore, general, b. 1761, served in the West Indies 1795, in Egypt at the battle of Alexandria 21 Mar. 1801, and afterwards in the Peninsular War 1808–9; killed at the battle of Corunna, 16 Jan. 1809.

555. Lord Hill, 1812. Obv. Head l., bare. LIEUT. GENERAL LORD HILL, MILLS F. H. Rev. The river Tagus, over which broken bridge; above, Victory flying r., conducting Britannia. ALMARAZ. MAY XIX. MDCCCXII. MUDIE D. GAYRARD F. Copper. Size 1·6. By Mills and Gayrard.

Rowland, Viscount Hill, general, b. 1772, served in the Egyptian Campaign 1801, in the Peninsular War 1809–1814, raised to the peerage 1814, commanded at Waterloo 1815, appointed Commander-in-chief 1828–42; d. 1842. This medal records the destruction by Hill, 19 May, 1812, of the French fortifications which covered the bridge of boats over the Tagus at Almaraz, the only means of communication between the armies of Soult and Marmont.

556. Sir Thomas Picton, 1812. Obv. Bust, three-quarters l., in uniform, wearing star of the Bath. LIEUT. GEN. SIR T. PICTON K.B. Webb. Rev. General Picton l., planting English flag on battlement. BADAJOZ. APR? VI. MDCCCXII. MUDIE D. MILLS F. Copper. Size 1·6. By Webb and Mills.

Sir Thomas Picton, general, b. 1758, commanded in the West Indies 1794–1797, where he was appointed Gov. of Trinidad; commanded in Holland 1809, and in the Peninsular War, being present at the battles of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Vittoria, &c.; killed at Waterloo 1815. This medal commemorates the capture of Badajoz, Picton and his division leading the assault on the citadel.

557. Lord Lynedoch, 1813. Obv. Head r., bare. LIEUT. GENERAL LORD LYNEDOCH. MODELED BY P. ROUW. MUDIE DIR. WEBB F. Rev. Greek warrior facing, head r., standing on battlements, holding sword and crown; in background, city in flames; before which, ships. S. SEBASTIAN. AUG. XXXI. MDCCCXIII. MUDIE D. MILLS F. Copper. Size 1·6. By P. Rouw, Webb, and Mills.

Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, general, b. 1750, served in the Peninsular War 1809–1814, raised to the peerage 1814, d. 1843. This medal refers to the capture of the town and citadel of St. Sebastian, 21 Aug. 1813.

558. Lord Thurlow, d. 1806. Bust l., in hat and official robes. Copper. Size 3·1. Cast and chased. A Plaque.

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Edward, Lord Thurlow, b. 1732, appointed Solicitor-General 1770, Attorney-General 1771, Lord Chancellor 1778; d. 1806.

559. William Pitt. Obv. Head l. RT. HONBLE. WILLIAM PITT. 1814. T. WYON JUN. S. Rev. Inscription giving date of birth and death and recording public services. Copper. Size 2·1. By T. Wyon, jun.

William Pitt, statesman, b. 28 May, 1759, appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer 1782, Prime Minister 1784–1801, and again in 1804–1806; d. 23 Jan. 1806.

560. Charles James Fox, 1806. Obv. Bust l., draped. CHARLES JA? FOX. THIS ILLUSTRIOUS PATRIOT DEPARTED THIS LIFE SEPTEMBER 13. A.D. 1806. ÆT? 57. P. W. F. Rev. INTREPID CHAMPION OF FREEDOM, &c. Silver. Size 2·05. By P. Wyon.

Charles James Fox, statesman, b. 1748, appointed Secretary of State 1782, Foreign Secretary 1783, and again 1806; d. 13 Sep. 1806.

561. Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, 1803. Obv. Bust r., in court dress. HENRY ADDINGTON. CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER & FIRST LORD OF THE TREASURY. I. G. HANCOCK. Rev. Female figure holding scroll, inscribed, STATE OF THE NATION, and kneeling l. before pedestal, surmounted by figures of Britannia, Justice, and Time; in the distance, Westminster Abbey. WHO CAN WITHHOLD APPLAUSE; in ex., MDCCCIII. K. & K. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, statesman, b. 1757, appointed Speaker of the House of Commons 1789, Prime Minister 1801–1804, President of the Council 1805, Home Secretary 1812–1822; d. 1844. This medal refers to the peaceable state of England as well as of Europe in 1803, brought about by the Peace of Amiens, 27 March, 1802.

562. Earl of Liverpool (Lord Hawkesbury), 1803. Obv. Bust l. ROBERT BANKS LORD HAWKESBURY. SECRETARY OF STATE. HANCOCK. Rev. Female figure seated l., despatching Mercury, who holds scroll; at her side, shield; sea and ship in the distance. INTEGRITY AIDS DISPATCH; in ex., MDCCCIII. K. & K. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool, b. 1770, became Lord Hawkesbury 1796, appointed Foreign 129 Secretary in the Addington Ministry 1801, Home Secretary 1804 and again in 1807, Earl of Liverpool 1808, Prime Minister 1812–1827; d. 1828. Like the previous medal, this one refers to the Addington administration.

563. William Wilberforce, 1807. Obv. Head r. WILLIAM WILBERFORCE M.P. THE FRIEND OF AFRICA. Webb. Rev. Britannia seated l., accompanied by Minerva and Justice, delivering message to Peace; above, angel in clouds with cross and wreath. I HAVE HEARD THEIR CRY; in ex., SLAVE TRADE ABOLISHED. MDCCCVII. Silver. Size 2·1. By Webb.

William Wilberforce, philanthropist, b. 1759, M.P. for Hull 1780 and York county 1783, procured a bill for the abolition of the trade in slaves by British subjects 25 March, 1807, and survived the second reading of the Emancipation Act 1833; d. same year. This medal commemorates the Act of 1807.

564. Lord Brougham and Vaux, 1812. Obv. Head r. HENRY BROUGHAM ESQRE, M.P. MDCCCXII. HALLIDAY F. Rev. Panegyrical inscription. Copper. Size 1·9. By Halliday.

Henry Lord Brougham and Vaux, statesman and orator, b. 1779; M.P. for Camelford 1810, for Winchelsea 1816; appointed Attorney-General to Queen Caroline, 1820; M.P. for York county, 1830; Lord Chancellor, 1830–1834; d. 1868.

565. Adam Smith, 1787. Obv. Head r. ADAM SMITH. 1787. Rev. Minerva l., holding cornucopiae and spear. Silver. Size 1·6. Cast and chased.

Adam Smith, political economist, b. 1723, d. 1787, author of "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," "Theory of Moral Sentiments," &c.

566. George Washington, First President of the United States, 1805. Obv. Bust r., in armour and ermine cloak. GENERAL WASHINGTON. INSCRIBED TO HIS MEMORY BY D. ECCLESTON. LANCASTER. MDCCCV; on arm, WEBB. Rev. American Indian l., with bow and spear. THE LAND WAS OURS; around, panegyrical inscription in three circles. Copper. Size 3. By Webb.

George Washington, Founder and First President of the United States, b. 1732, Commander-in-chief of the Continental army 1775, President 1789, re-elected 1793, d. 1799. 130

567. Benjamin Franklin, 1786. Obv. Bust l. BENJ. FRANKLIN NATUS BOSTON XVII. JAN. MDCCVI: on arm, DUPRÉ F. Rev. Within oak-wreath, ERIPUIT COELO FULMEN SCEPTRUM QUE TYRANNIS. SCULPSIT ET DICAVIT AUG. DUPRE ANNO MDCCLXXXVI. Copper. Size 1·8. By A. Dupré.

Benjamin Franklin, American statesman, philosopher, &c., b. 1706, was at first a compositor and printer, appointed postmaster of Philadelphia 1737, agent for England 1757 and again in 1764, signed at Paris the treaty between England and America 1783, President of the Supreme Council 1785, d. 1790.


Military and Naval Medals

568. Battle of Culloden, 1746. Obv. Head of Duke of Cumberland r. CUMBERLAND. YEO F. Rev. Apollo l., leaning on bow and pointing at dragon pierced by arrow. ACTUM EST ILICET PERIIT. (cf. Ter. Eun. I. i. 9); in ex., PROEL. COLOD. AP. XVI. MDCCXLVI: ornamental border. Gold. Oval. Size 1·85: loop for suspension. By R. Yeo.

Struck to commemorate the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, 16 Ap. 1746, by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland.

569. Naval Victory of 1st June, 1794. Obv. Britannia with spear standing on prow l., crowned by Victory; at her side, shield. Rev. Wreath of laurel and oak branches. Silver. Size 2.

Copy in silver of the gold medal presented by the Lords of the Admiralty to Lord Howe and the other admirals who commanded in the action with the French, 1st June, 1794, off Brest. On the reverse was inscribed the recipient's name. Smaller medals, also in gold, were presented to the Captains. (See next medal.)

570. Another. Similar, but reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·25.

571. Campaign in Egypt: Battle of Alexandria, 1801. Obv. Sphinx l., displaying Union Jack above French tricolour on the same staff. EGYPT; engraved; in ex., XXI. MARCH, MDCCCI. I. G. H. K. & K. Rev. Within wreath of palm, QUEEN'S GERMAN REGIMENT; on edge, FRENCH DEFEATED; engraved. Silver. Size 1·85. By J. G. Hancock.

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This is a regimental medal and was struck by order of the officers of the 97th or Queen's German Regiment, for presentation to the men of the regiment who were engaged in the battle of Alexandria, 21 Mar. 1801.

572. Another. Turkish Award, 1801. Obv. Crescent and star; ornamental border. Rev. Cypher of Sultán Selim III.; ornamental border, in which 1801. Gold. Size 1·6. Loop for suspension. Ribbon, dark orange.

After the defeat of the French in Egypt 1801, the Sultán instituted an order of Knighthood designated the Crescent, which he conferred on the general officers of the English forces. At the same time he presented gold medals of three sizes: the largest (size 2.) to the Generals and Admirals; the middle size (as above) to Field Officers and Captains R.N.; and the smallest (see next medal) to Captains and Subalterns and Lieutenants R.N.

573. Another. Same, but smaller. Gold. Size 1·4. This is a medal of the smallest size.

574. Campaign in Southern Italy and Sicily: Battle of Maida, 1806. Obv. Head of George III. l., laur. GEORGIVS TERTIVS REX; on neck, G. F. P. Rev. Britannia l., as Pallas, brandishing spear; on l. arm, shield; above, Victory r. with wreath; behind, triquetra, symbol of Sicily. MAIDA. IVL. IV. MDCCCVI. PIDGEON F. Gold. Size 1·4. By G. F. Pidgeon. The whole within gold band. Ribbon, red with blue edges.

This medal commemorates the battle of Maida, 4 July, 1806, in which the French under Regnier were defeated by the English under Sir John Stuart. It was only given to the Commander-in-chief of the forces engaged; to officers in command of brigades, of battalions or of corps equivalent to a battalion, or to the officers who succeeded when the original commander was disabled; and to the Deputy Quartermaster-General.

575. Peninsular War: Battles of the Pyrenees, 1813–1814. Obv. Hibernia seated l., holding wreath; at her side, harp. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, ORTHES. TOULOUSE. PYRENEES. NIVELLE. NIVE; engraved: above, 88; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·2. Clasp: PENINSULA. Ribbon, red with blue edges.

There were medals of three distinct classes for the Peninsular War struck at the expense of the officers of the 88th Regiment, Connaught Rangers. That of the first 132 class was in the form of a Maltese cross, and was bestowed upon those of the regiment who had been engaged in twelve actions. The second class medal, of the type above described, was given to those who had served in from seven to eleven actions; and the third class, of the same type as the second, to such as had served in any number less than seven. The above is an example of the third class.

576. Waterloo Medal, 1815. Obv. Head of Prince Regent l., laur. GEORGE P. REGENT. T. WYON JUN. S. Rev. Victory, holding palm and olive-branch, seated l., on pedestal inscribed, WATERLOO; beneath, JUNE 18. 1815; above, WELLINGTON. T. WYON S. Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By T. Wyon and T. Wyon Junior. Ribbon, crimson edged with blue.

By order of the Prince Regent, 10 Mar. 1816, this medal was conferred upon every officer and soldier present at the battle of Waterloo. The reverse type is adapted from an ancient coin of Elis. (Guide to Greek Coins, p. 28, No. 31.)

577. Service in India, 1799–1826. Obv. Head of Queen l., wearing coronet. VICTORIA REGINA; on neck, W. WYON R.A. Rev. Victory seated l., holding olive-branch and wreath; at her side, lotus; in the distance, trophy of arms at base of palm-tree. TO THE ARMY OF INDIA; in ex., 1799–1826. W. W. Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasp: BHURTPOOR. Ribbon, pale blue.

On 21 March, 1851, a general order was issued announcing that the Queen had signified her assent to a measure proposed by the East India Company, of granting a medal to the surviving officers and soldiers of the Crown who had served in India between 1799–1826. This medal carries 21 clasps, and with it were worn those of Mysore and Seringapatam (Nos. 609–611), previously given by the East India Company.

578. Campaign in Syria, 1840: Turkish Award. Obv. Fortress of Acre, from which floats Turkish ensign; above, six stars; beneath, Arabic inscription, "The country of Syria and the fortress of Acre, 1256." Rev. Cypher of Sultán Abd-el-Mejeed surrounded by laurel-wreath. Silver. Size 1·15. Ribbon, red edged with white.

This medal was bestowed by the Sultán upon the English naval forces engaged in the war in Syria, 1840: 133 in gold, to officers ranking with field-officers; in silver, to quarter-deck and warrant officers; and in copper, to petty officers, seamen, marines, and boys.

579. Afghan War, 1839–42. Ghuznee, 1839. Obv. View of fortress; beneath, GHUZNEE. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, mural crown; above, 23? JULY; below, 1839; wearer's name in field and regiment on border. Silver. Size 1·45. Ribbon, crimson and green.

This medal was presented by the Shah Shuja'a el-Mulk, Sovereign of Afghanistan, to the officers and soldiers present at the storming of Ghuznee, 22–23 July, 1839, Sir John Keane commanding. The Queen sanctioned the wearing of this medal, 22 Mar. 1841.

580–581. Another. Khelat-i-Ghilzee, 1841–2. Obv. Within laurel-wreath, shield inscribed, KELAT I GHILZIE; above, mural crown. Rev. Trophy of arms on tablet inscribed, INVICTA. MDCCCXLII. Silver and copper. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, military ribbon of India, rainbow-pattern.

Presented by the Governor-General of India, Lord Ellenborough, to the defenders of the fortress of Khelát-i-Ghilzee, who 21 May, 1842, repulsed the attack of 4000 Ghazees. The defenders were natives, with the exception of Captain J. H. Craigie commanding and a few English artillerymen in the service of the Shah, so that no Queen's regiment received this medal. This is a proof.

582. Another: Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabul, 1842. Obv. Head of Queen l., wearing coronet. VICTORIA VINDEX. W. WYON R.A. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, CANDAHAR GHUZNEE CABUL. 1842; above, crown; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

This medal was given to the soldiers who served under General Nott during the whole of the campaign, and accompanied him from Candahar to Cabul, viz. from 1 Jan. to 17 Sept. 1842.

583. Another: Ghuznee and Cabul, 1842. Obv. Same. Rev. GHUZNEE CABUL, each within laurel-wreath; above, crown; below, 1842; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

The soldiers who accompanied General Nott from Ghuznee to Cabul, viz. from 6 to 17 Sep., received this medal. 134

584. Another. Cabul, 1842. Obv. Same. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, CABUL. 1842; above, crown. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

Those who reached Cabul subsequent to 16 Sept. 1842 were awarded the above medal. This is a proof.

585–586. First Chinese War, 1840–2. Obv. Head of Queen l., wearing coronet. VICTORIA REGINA. W. WYON. R.A. Rev. Palm-tree, against which are placed shield, arms of Great Britain, cannon, anchor, flags, &c. ARMIS EXPOSCERE PACEM. CHINA. 1842; wearer's name on edge. Silver and copper (proof). Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, crimson with yellow edges.

This medal was awarded to the army and navy which served in the First Chinese War, Sir Hugh Gough and Adm. Sir William Parker commanding.

587. Another: Design for Medal. Obv. Same. Rev. British lion r., crowned, trampling on Chinese dragon. ARMIS EXPOSCERE PACEM. NANKING. 1842. Copper. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. A pattern.

This was Wyon's first design for the Chinese medal, but it was not adopted, as it was thought that the reverse type might be displeasing to the Chinese.

588. Sinde Campaign, 1843: Meeanee and Hyderabad. Obv. Same. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, MEEANEE HYDERABAD. 1843; above, crown; wearer's name on edge. Silver, Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

Given to those who served at Meeanee, 17 Feb., and Hyderabad, 22 Mar. 1843. The expedition was commanded by Sir Charles Napier, and both victories were mainly due to the bravery of the men of the 22nd Regiment, who were authorized to place MEEANEE, HYDERABAD, and SCINDE on their colours.

589. Another. Hyderabad, 1842. Obv. Same. Rev. Similar; but HYDERABAD. 1843; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4, By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

This medal was awarded to those who were engaged in the battle of Hyderabad; a similar medal being struck for those who served at Meeanee only. It was also given to officers and men of the Indian Navy.

590. First Sikh War, 1845–6: Moodkee, Ferozeshuhur, Aliwal, and Sobraon. Obv. Same. Rev. Victory l., holding 135 wreath and palm; at her feet, arms. ARMY OF THE SUTLEJ; in ex., MOODKEE. 1845. W. WYON. R.A. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps: FEROZESHUHUR, ALIWAL, and SOBRAON. Ribbon, blue edged with crimson.

The great battles of this campaign, Sir Hugh Gough and Sir Henry Hardinge commanding, were Moodkee, 18 Dec. 1845; Ferozeshuhur, 21 Dec. 1845; Aliwal, 28 Jun. 1846; and Sobraon, 10 Feb. 1846. If a soldier was present at only one of the four actions, the decoration was awarded to him without a clasp, the name of such action being inscribed in the exergue on the reverse; but if the recipient served in more battles than one, then for each engagement he received an additional clasp. (See next medal.) This is a proof.

591. Another: Aliwal and Sobraon, 1846. Same: but on reverse ALIWAL. 1846; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasp: SOBRAON. Ribbon, as previous.

This medal shows that the recipient was present at two engagements, Aliwal and Sobraon.

592. Military Services, 1793–1814: Peninsular War. Obv. Same: but beneath head, 1848. Rev. Queen on pedestal r., placing wreath on head of Duke of Wellington, who kneels before her; at her feet, recumbent lion. TO THE BRITISH ARMY 1793–1814. W. W. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps: ROLEIA, VIMIERA, CORUNNA, TALAVERA, BUSACO, FUENTES D'ONOR, CIUDAD RODRIGO, BADAJOZ, SALAMANCA, VITTORIA, PYRENEES, NIVELLE, NIVE, ORTHES, and TOULOUSE. Ribbon, crimson edged with blue.

Great disappointment having been expressed that no medal had been awarded either to the army or navy for the numerous victories achieved between 1793–1814, the Queen, 1st June, 1847, ordered that a medal should be struck and bestowed upon any surviving officer or private present at any battle or siege between those dates. For this purpose, the above medal was struck. It carries 28 clasps, and the earliest military service thus decorated is the campaign in Egypt 1801, which was, however, not included in the general order, but was afterwards granted under an order 12 Feb. 1850. A similar order was issued regarding naval services, commencing with the capture of the French frigate "Cleopatra," 18 June, 1793, and for which a separate medal was struck, having on the reverse, 136 Britannia seated on sea-horse, holding trident and olive-branch. The medal above described is a proof, and has only the clasps given for the principal engagements in the Peninsular War.

593. Indian General Service, 1848. "For Meritorious Service." Obv. Same: but no date. Rev. Shields, arms, and flags of East India Company; above, crest; beneath, motto on scroll, AUSPICIO REGIS ET SENATUS ANGLIÆ; around, FOR MERITORIOUS SERVICE. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, dark crimson.

This medal was given by the East India Co. for "meritorious service" in India before 1848. This is a proof.

594. Second Sikh War, 1848–1849: Punjab Medal. Obv. Same. Rev. Surrender of the Sikh army: Lord Gough on horseback l., before the British army drawn up in line; before him, the enemy laying down their arms. TO THE ARMY OF THE PUNJAB. MDCCCXLIX; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps: CHILIANWALA and GOOJERAT. Ribbon, blue with narrow stripes of yellow.

This medal carries three clasps: Mooltan, 7 Sept. 1848–2 Jan. 1849; Chilianwala, 13 Jan. 1849; and Goojerat, 21 Feb. 1849: Lord Gough Comm.-in-chief.

595. Second Burmese War, 1852: Pegu. Obv. Same. Rev. Victory r., crowning warrior seated on arms, holding sword and sheath; beneath, lotus; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Clasp, PEGU. Ribbon, alternate stripes of scarlet and blue.

Only one clasp was given for this war, which was for the defence of Pegu, Major Hill commanding.

596. Campaigns in South Africa, 1834–1853. Obv. Same. Rev. Lion crouching l. under bush. SOUTH AFRICA; in ex., 1853. L. C. WYON. Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Ribbon, orange with dark blue stripes.

On 22 Nov. 1854 the Queen ordered that a medal should be struck and awarded to the surviving officers and privates of the regular forces who served in South Africa in the years 1834–5, Sir Benjamin D'Urban Comm.-in-chief; in 1846–7, Colonel Robert Richardson and Colonel H. Somerset commanding; and in 1850–1853, Sir Harry Smith and aft. Sir G. Cathcart commanding. This medal has no clasp. 137

597. War with Russia, 1854–1855: Crimea. Obv. Same: beneath head, 1854. Rev. Ancient warrior facing, holding sword and shield, and crowned by Victory. CRIMEA. B. WYON SC. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. & B. Wyon. Clasps formed of oak-leaves with acorns: ALMA, BALAKLAVA, INKERMANN, AZOFF, and SEBASTOPOL. Ribbon, pale blue edged with yellow.

In Dec. 1854 the Queen ordered that a medal should be struck to be awarded, with clasps for ALMA and INKERMANN, to all such as were present in either of those battles; that of BALAKLAVA was added in Feb. 1855; and that of SEBASTOPOL was given to all who served at the siege between Oct. 1854 and Sep. 1855. The clasp for AZOFF is naval, and was given to those who served under Sir Edmund Lyons and took part in the capture of Kertch, Yenikale, &c. This is a proof.

598. Another: Service in the Baltic, 1854–1855. Obv. Same: but no date. Rev. Britannia seated l. on low pedestal, looking back, holding trident; in the distance, sea and forts Sveaborg and Bomarsund. BALTIC; in ex., 1854–1855. L. C. WYON. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. & L. C. Wyon. Ribbon, yellow with blue edges.

Awarded to those who served in the Baltic fleet during 1854–1855. It has no clasp.

599. Another: Anglo-Turkish Award, 1855. Obv. Trophy of arms, with flags of Turkey, England, France, and Sardinia; on gun, map of Crimea. CRIMEA. 1855. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, cypher of Sultán Abd-el-Mejeed; beneath in Turkish, CRIMEA. 1271. Silver. Size 1·4. Ribbon, pink with green edges.

This medal was distributed by the Sultán to all the forces of the Allies, but varied for France and Sardinia, by their flags being placed to r. of that of Turkey instead of the English one.

600. Persian War, 1856–1857. Same as No. 595, but on rev. L. C. WYON. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Clasp: PERSIA. Ribbon, alternate stripes of scarlet and blue.

For the Persian War 1856–7, Sir J. Outram Comm.-in-chief, the same medal was used as for the Second Burmese War (No. 595), but with a different clasp.

601. Indian Mutiny, 1857–1858. Obv. Same as No. 585. Rev. Britannia standing l., holding wreath in each hand; on l. arm, shield; at her side, lion. INDIA; in ex., 1857–1858. 138 L. C. WYON. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Clasps: DELHI, DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW, RELIEF OF LUCKNOW, LUCKNOW, and CENTRAL INDIA Ribbon, alternate stripes of scarlet and white.

This medal was awarded to all engaged in the operations during the Mutiny in India 1857–8, and was also conferred on non-military persons who had borne arms as volunteers. It carries only the five clasps above given. This specimen is a proof.

602. Arctic Discoveries, 1818–1855. Obv. Head of Queen l., wearing diadem. VICTORIA REGINA. L. C. WYON F. Rev. Ship l., in the ice; icebergs on either side; in foreground, sailors drawing sledge r. FOR ARCTIC DISCOVERIES; in ex., 1818–1855. Silver. Size 1·3. By L. C. Wyon. An octagonal medal surmounted by star with ribbon, white.

This medal was given to all engaged in the Arctic expeditions between 1818–1855. This is a proof.

603. New Zealand, 1846–1866. Obv. Bust of Queen l., crowned and veiled. VICTORIA D. G. BRITT. REG. F. D. J. S. & A. B. WYON SC. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, 1846 TO 1866; around, NEW ZEALAND. VIRTUTIS HONOR. Silver. Size 1·4. By J. S. and A. B. Wyon. Ribbon, blue with red stripe in centre.

Given to those who had served in the wars in New Zealand between 1846–1866. It was awarded to both services.

604. Second Chinese War, 1855–1860. Same as No. 585, but no date on reverse. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps: CHINA 1842, FATSHAN 1857, CANTON 1857, TAKU FORTS 1858, TAKU FORTS 1860 and PEKIN 1860. Ribbon, crimson with yellow edges.

This medal is the same, with the exception of the omission of the date, as the one given for the First Chinese War (No. 585). It was given for services in the campaign of 1856–8, Major-Gen. Van Straubenzee and Adm. Sir M. Seymour commanding; and of 1860, Sir James Hope-Grant commanding. The clasps for FATSHAN 1857 and TAKU FORTS 1858 were awarded to the navy and marines, and that of CHINA 1842 to recipients of the first medal who were engaged in the Second Chinese War. This is a proof.

605. Abyssinian War, 1867–1868. Obv. Within ornamented star of nine points, bust of Queen l., veiled and crowned. ABYSSINIA, (letter in each angle formed by points of star). J. S. & A. B. WYON SC. Rev. Laurel-wreath with inner circle. Silver. Size 1·3. By J. S. and A. B. Wyon. Surmounted by crown. Ribbon, crimson with white edges.

Awarded to those who served in the Abyssinian War 1867–8, Sir Robert Napier (Lord Napier of Magdala) commanding. It was given to both services. The reverse of the medal is inscribed BRITISH MUSEUM.

606. Ashantee War, 1873–1874. Obv. Head of Queen l., veiled, wearing coronet. VICTORIA REGINA. L. C. WYON. Rev. Battle scene in bush; in centre, tree, on right of which are negroes fighting or wounded; on left, British soldiers advancing firing, one fallen. Silver. Size 1·4. By L. C. Wyon. Ribbon, alternate stripes of yellow and black.

This medal carries a clasp for COOMASSIE, and was issued to both services. The obverse is the work of Leonard C. Wyon, and the reverse from a design by E. J. Poynter, R.A. It was given for services in the Ashantee War 1873–4, Sir Garnet Wolseley Commander-in-chief. This is a proof.


Hon. East India Company's Service Medals

607. Campaign in West of India, 1784. Obv. Britannia seated r., on arms, holding wreath and spear; fortress in the distance; at her side, shield. Rev. Inscription in Persian: "Presented by the Calcutta Government in memory of good service and intrepid valour A.D. 1784. Mahommedan Era 1199;" and "Like this coin, may it endure long in the world, and the exertions of those lion-hearted Englishmen of great name, victorious from Hindostan to the Deccan, become exalted." Silver. Size 1·6.

This medal was awarded to the Company's troops for services performed in the First Mahratta War, and the Second Mysore War with Hyder 'Alee 1778–1784. It was struck in two sizes, the larger having been awarded to officers only.

608. Another. Same: but of smaller size. Silver. Size 1·25.

Awarded to the non-commissioned officers and privates.

609. Mysore: War with Tippoo Sahib, 1791–1792. Obv. Sepoy in uniform, facing, holding in r. hand English flag, and in l. Mysore banner reversed; in the distance, fortress of Seringapatam. Rev. Within laurel-wreath, FOR SERVICES IN MYSORE. 140 A.D. 1791–1792; around, Persian inscription, "A memorial of devoted services to the English Government at the war of Mysore, Christian Era 1791–1792, equivalent to Mahommedan Era 1205–1206." Silver. Size 1·7.

This medal was presented to the successful forces under Lord Cornwallis, who so completely paralysed the power of Tippoo Sahib that he was compelled to submit to the terms of a treaty which deprived him of half of his dominions. This medal was struck in two sizes, the larger having been awarded to officers only. On 21 Mar. 1851 the Queen authorized this medal to be worn by survivors.

610. Another. Same: but of smaller size. Silver. Size 1·45.

Given to the non-commissioned officers and privates.

611. Mysore: Second War with Tippoo Sahib: Taking of Seringapatam, 1799. Obv. Lion r., subduing Tiger; above, banner with Arabic inscription, "The lion of God is the conqueror;" in ex., IV. MAY. MDCCXCIX. C. H. K. Rev. View of the storming of Seringapatam, soldiers mounting the breach; above, mid-day sun; in ex., Persian inscription, "The Fort of Seringapatam the gift of God, 28 Zulkaadeh, 1213 Mahommedan Era" (4 May, 1799). Gold. Size 1·9. Ribbon, deep yellow. By C. H. Küchler.

The second war with Tippoo Sahib, which was terminated by the taking of Seringapatam, lasted only from Feb. to May 1799, Lord Harris and General Baird commanding. The Tiger was the favourite emblem of Tippoo Sahib. This medal was struck in gold, silver-gilt, silver, copper-bronzed, and tin. The gold ones were given to the King, the Governor-General, and various princes, the Commander-in-chief and the general officers on the staff; those in silver-gilt, to the field-officers and the general staff, the members of the Council of the three Presidencies, the Residents at Hyderabad and Poonah; those in silver, to the captains and subalterns; those in copper-bronzed, to the non-commissioned officers; and those in pure grain tin, to the privates. By an order of the Prince Regent, 29 Aug. 1815, officers were authorized to wear these medals in any part of his Majesty's dominions. This order was confirmed 21 Mar. 1851, when the Army of India medal (No. 577) was issued.

612. Egyptian Campaign, 1801. Obv. Sepoy facing, holding English flag in r. hand; in the distance, battle and tents; in ex., 141 Persian inscription, "This medal has been granted as a memorial of the defeat of the French army in Egypt by the victorious and brave English army." Rev. Ship towards r. on sea; in the distance, sea-shore with pyramids and obelisk. MDCCCI. Silver. Size 1·9.

Given by the East India Company to the seven thousand English and Native troops commanded by Major-General Baird, who landed at Kosseyr, marched across the Desert, and from Kinè descended the Nile to Rosetta, 1800–1801.

613. Capture of Rodriguez, Bourbon, and Mauritius, 1809–1810. Obv. Sepoy holding English flag and musket, trampling on French standard; behind, cannon; and in the distance, sea with ships, &c. Rev. RODRIGUES VI. JULY. MDCCCIX. BOURBON VIII. JULY. & ISLE OF FRANCE III. DEC. MDCCCX; in field within laurel-wreath, Persian inscription, "This medal has been granted as a memorial of the bravery and devotion shown by the Sepoys of the Honourable East India Company, in the conquest of the Islands of Rodrigues, Bourbon and Mauritius, in the Mahommedan Era 1226." Silver. Size 1·9.

This medal was awarded to the Sepoy regiments who took part in the above expeditions.

614. Conquest of Java, 1811: Capture of Port Cornelis. Obv. Sepoy regiment carrying Fort Cornelis by storm: on the fort is the British flag over the Dutch; above, CORNELIS. Rev. JAVA CONQUERED. XXVI. AUGUST. MDCCCXI; in field, Persian inscription, "This medal is presented in commemoration of the valour and courage displayed by the Sepoys of the Honourable East India Company in the conquest of Java, 1228 Mahommedan Era." Silver. Size 1·9.

Presented by the East India Company to the native troops under Sir Samuel Achmuty for their assistance in capturing the Island of Java, 1811, from the Dutch and French troops. The capture of Fort Cornelis decided the success of the campaign. For this campaign the European regiments afterwards received the medal for Military Services (No. 592), with clasp for Java.

615. First Burmese War, 1824–1826. Taking of Ava. Obv. Elephant in attitude of submission l., crouching before lion, behind whom English flag unfurled; behind elephant, flag of Burmah drooping; in ex., Persian inscription, "The Elephant of Ava submits to the Lion of England year 1826." W. DANIELL. R.A. DES. Rev. Troops advancing towards a pagoda within stockade; in foreground, general commanding, steamer, and boats in river 142 bombarding; in ex., Persian inscription, "The victorious standard of the English army upon Ava." W. WYON. Gold. Size 1·45. By W. Daniell and W. Wyon. Ribbon, crimson with blue edges.

This medal in silver was bestowed upon the native troops which at any period during the war were employed under the command of General Sir Archibald Campbell, including the officers and men of the gunboats serving on the river Irrawaddy. The regiments of the Crown as well as the navy received for this war the Army of India medal (No. 577), with clasp for Ava.

616. Afghan War, 1839–1842. Defence of Jelálábád. Obv. Mural crown; above, JELLALABAD. Rev. VII. APRIL 1842. Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·5. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

This medal was struck by order of the Governor-General, Lord Ellenborough, who distributed it to every officer, non-commissioned officer, and private, European and native, of the garrison of Jelálábád, 7 April, 1842, on which day the besieging army of Akbar Khán was defeated by a general sortie, Colonel Dennie and others commanding. Sir Robert Sale commanded the defence. The 13th Light Infantry, the only Queen's regiment engaged in the defence, was authorized to wear this medal 22 Aug. 1842; but it was subsequently replaced by the following one.

617. Second Jelálábád medal. Obv. Head of Queen l., wearing crown. VICTORIA VINDEX. W. WYON. Rev. Victory with wreaths and English flag, flying r. over fortress of Jelálábád. JELLALABAD VII. APRIL; in ex., MDCCCXLII. W. W. Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

It may be inferred from the great scarcity of this medal that but few availed themselves of the offer of exchange.

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